4. Salsola arbuscula Pallas, Reise russ. Reich. 1: 487. 1771; (Pl. G fig.1) Pall., Ill. pl. 25. 1803 (Pl. 17); Boiss., Fl. Or. 4: 960. 1878; Iljin in Fl. SSSR 6: 237, 1936; Grubov, Pl. As. Centr. 2: 89. 1966;Soskov in Ovcz., Fl. Tadzh. SSR 3: 387. 1968; R. R. Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. Kashm. 225, 1972; Pratov in Consp. Fl. As. Med. 3: 93. 1972; Botsch. in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 13: 86. 1976; Mobayen, Fl. pl. vasc. Iran 2: 259. 1979; Li in Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 25,2: 164. 1979; Liu in Fl. Desert. Reip. Pop. Sin. 1: 353. 1985; Mao in Fl. Xinjiang. 2,1: 89. 1994; Czerepan., Vasc. Pl. Russia States 187. 1995; Freitag in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 172: 173. 1997. (Figs. 25, B; 28, B).
S. arborescens L. fil., Suppl. pl.: 173, 1781.
Small, divaricately branched, spinescent shrub or subshrub, (20)30-100 cm high; glabrous or papillose. Stem branched from base, up to 2 cm diam., grey, with fissured bark; annual shoots rigid, soon turning milky white, simple or with shorter ascending laterals, terminating in loose or modestly condensed spikes. Leaves ascending, straight, semi-terete, in lower part 1-3(5) cm x 1-1.5(2) mm, apiculate or shortly mucronate, basal constriction 0.5-1 mm long; leaf axils sparsely hairy. Bracts leaf-like but shorter, (2)3-10(20) mm long, mucronate, at base auriculate with wide hyaline margins; bracteoles uniform in size, (1.5)2-3(3.5) mm long, always shorter than bracts, the lower exceeding the tepals, the upper as long as or shorter. Tepals ovate-ligulate, 3-3.5 mm long, the outer 1.3-1.7(2) mm wide, 9-13-veined, with distinct midrib up to the apex, the others at least 3-5-veined, the hyaline margin in lower part sheathing and papillose to ciliate, in upper part and at the rounded apex crenulate and ± undulate, the back thickened but without a distinct green blotch, glabrous, transverse line at 1/7-1/10. Anthers 2.2-3 mm long, divided up to 1/2, appendage 0.4-0.5 mm long, obtusely triangular, flat, smooth; filaments band-shaped, 3-3.5 x 0.5 mm; disc with 0.25 mm long thick lobes, glabrous. Style robust, 0.7-1 mm long, conical; stigmas 2, in upper part recurved, 1.5-2 mm long, flat, at base 0.4 mm wide, at apex almost subulate, inner side short and densely papillose, deeply red. Fruiting perianth (8)10-13 mm diam., wings subequal, straw-coloured, coriaceous; tepals above the wings first incurved and forming a broad, indurated circular bulge, then abruptly recurved and forming an open, flower-like cup. Utricle 2-3 mm diam., with hardened cap, horizontal.
Fl. Per.: August-September.
Holotype: [Kazakhstan] “Occupat summum marginem riparium Lacus salsi Inderiensis, in deserto Tatarico”, P.S. Pallas; (BM!), iso- (W!).
In adjacent Afghanistan it grows in altitudes from 2-2400 m in semi-desert area. Expected in Pakistan; Distribution: From the Caspian lowlands in Russia and from C Iran eastwards to Mongolia and Gansu in China, southeast to the Afghan-Pakistan border.