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Pakistan | Family List | Pakistan V. 204 | Chenopodiaceae | Salsola

7. Salsola collina Pallas, III. Pl. 34. 1803; (Pl. 26) Moq. in DC, Prodr. 13,2: 188. 1849; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 17. 1885; R.R. Stewart, Fl. Ladak 631. 1917; Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. Kashm. 226. 1972 (p.p.); Pampanini, Fl. Caracorum 102. 1930; Iljin in Fl. SSSR 6: 215. 1936; Grubov, Pl. As. Centr. 2: 82. 1966; Soskov in Ovch., Fl. Tadzh. SSR 3: 384. 1968; Aellen in Hegi (ed.), Ill. Fl. Mittel-Eur. ed. 2, 3,2,1: 741. 1968; Pratov in Consp. Fl. As. Med. 3: 97. 1972; Ikonn., Opred. Vyssh. Rast. Badakhsh. 142. 1979; Li in Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 25,2: 176. 1979; Dhar & Kachroo, Alp. Fl. Kashmir Himal. 166. 1983; Li in Fl. Xiz. 1: 644. 1983; Aellen & Akeroyd in Fl. Eur. ed.2, 1: 127. 1993; Mao in Fl. Xinjiang. 2,1: 100. 1994; Rilke in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 172: 187. 1997; in Bibl. Bot. 149: 94. 1999. (Fig. 27, B1,2).

S. kali L. subsp. collina (Pall.)Bolòs & Vigo in Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., Secc. Bot. 1: 89. 1974; S. erubescens Schrader, Ind. Sem. Horti Acad. Gotting. 5. 1834; S. ircutiana Gand. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 60: 421. 1913; S. chinensis Gand., l.c. 421. 1913.

Annual, (5)10-40(-60) cm high, erect, rarely prostrate, + hispidulous, rarely glabrous, loosely branched from base, branches ascending or horizontally spreading, terminating in dense, elongated, narrow spikes. Leaves filiform, 20-40 x 0.5-1 mm, semi-terete, in upper part + terete, apically with an up to 0.8 mm long weak spine, lower margins hispid ciliate. Flowers hidden by the imbricate bases of bracts and bracteoles. Bracts significantly different from leaves, 5-9 mm long, with much widened sheathing base appressed to the axis, blades erect to ascending or apically slightly recurved, spine 0.5-1 mm long, the lower up to 2x longer than bracteoles, the upper equalling them; bracteoles narrow lanceolate, 3-7 mm long, spine 0.6-1 mm long. Tepals oblong, 1.5-2.3 mm long, the outer 0.4-0.7 mm wide, membranous throughout, glabrous, all 1-veined, very rarely the outermost 3-veined, transverse line at 1/3-1/2, midrib surpassing the line only in the outermost tepal; apex often crenulate to eroso-dentate. Anthers 0.9-1.4 mm long, including the minute appendage, divided for 1/2; filaments up to 2.5 mm long; disc thin, with distinct semi-circular lobes and papillose margin. Style 0.3-0.5 mm long; stigmas 0.8-1.5 mm long, filiform, inside with long papillae. Regular fruits remaining enclosed by the sheathing bases of bract and bracteoles, small, lense-shaped, dorsally and ventrally flattened, 1.5-2 mm wide and high, only one tepal with a poorly developed wing, the others with crenulate scale-like or horn-like outgrowths; lower part of tepals almost membranous, at base rounded, just above the base with 5 shallow grooves, tepal lobes at first horizontally incurved, the upper parts papery, forming a 0.8-1 mm long somewhat irregular column, enclosed by bracts and bracteoles; top of tepal lobes ± erect, papery; seed oblique or vertical; below the terminal spikes sometimes wingless complex fruits made up of condensed lateral spikes with 2-3 flowers, or single flowers surrounded by glabrous, shining, gibbous, hardened and coalescent bases of bract and bracteoles; the fruit itself barrel-shaped. Utricle horizontal.

Fl. Per.: June-August.

Type: [SE Europ. Russia] „Inter Rhymnum et Samaram fl. a jugo Uralensi descendentium“ Pallas; Icono- Pl. 26 l.c.

Pluriregional; originally Pontic-S Siberian and C Asiatic but widespread as adventitious species.

Rather rare but locally frequent in the dry valleys of N Pakistan, preferably on ruderal sites, in dry-farmed fields and along ditches in montane and subalpine environments from 1500-3000 m, from 2500 m onwards also on coarse-textured slopes. The species is highly variable in size and in habit due to different environmental factors (water, nutrients, radiation, grazing etc.), as has been stressed already by Hook.f. (1886). Morphologically and ecologicallly it approaches closely to the sympatric S. jacquemontii; Distribution: Very widespread from Russia to Middle Asia, C Asia and E China. Introduced in N America and Europe.


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