12. Salsola nitraria Pallas, Ill. Pl. 25. 1803; (Pl. 15) Iljin in Fl. SSSR 6: 253. 1936; Grubov, Pl. As. Centr. 2: 92. 1966; Botsch. in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 12: 177. 1975; Li in Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 25,2: 162. 1979; Greuter, Burdet & Long, Med-Checklist ed.2, 1: 309. 1984; Liu in Fl. Desert. Reip. Pop. Sin. 1: 365. 1985; Mao in Fl. Xinjiang. 2,1: 91. 1994; Czerepan., Vasc. Pl. Russia States 187. 1995; Freitag in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 172: 196. 1997; Chaudhary, Fl. Kingd. Saudi Arabia 1: 184. 1999. (Figs. 25, E; 28, G).
S. spissa M.Bieb. in Mém. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 1: 140. 1806; Boiss., Fl. Or. 4: 954. 1879; S. macera Litv. in Sched. Herb. Fl. Ross. 49: no. 2438. 1913; Iljin in Fl. SSSR 6: 254. 1936. S. micranthera Botsch. in Bot. Mat. Gerb. Inst. Bot. Zool. Akad. Nauk Uzb. SSR 13:5. 1952; S. pseudonitraria Aellen & Rech.f. in Anz. Math.-Nat. Kl. Österr. Akad. Wiss. 98: 26. 1961; Nitrosalsola nitraria (Pall.) Tzvelev in Ukrayins´k. Bot. Zhurn. 50: 80. 1993; Tzvelev in Fl. Or. Eur. 9: 87. 1996.
Annual, 10-30(-50) cm, often hemispherical; grey with short, curled, warty hairs, in lower part interspersed with up to 4 mm long hairs, in young stage often brownish, later glabrescent, rarely glabrous. Stem branched from base, branches ascending or spreading, the lowermost often longer than the primary stem, all branches terminating in long, usually dense spikes. Leaves 3.5-20 x 1.2-1.5 mm, obtuse, the lower linear, with both types of hairs, the upper triangular, sparsely pilose with semi-adpressed short hairs. Bracts similar to upper leaves or scale-like, 1.5-6 x 1.5-2 mm, sheathing with hyaline margins, glabrous or sparsely pilose with semi-adpressed hairs, the lower longer than bracteoles and tepals, the uppermost shorter. Bracteoles like upper bracts, but shorter, with wider hyaline margins, enclosing the perianth or slightly surpassed by it. Tepals ovate, 1.3-2 mm long, the outer 0.8-1.3 mm wide, 1-veined, transverse line at 1/2, green blotch small triangular, all or the outer only ciliate along the margin up to 1/2 and at the apex with curved, warty hairs. Anthers 0.6-1.2 mm long, including the 0.1-0.15 mm long obtuse appendage, divided for c. 3/4; filaments 1.5-2 mm long; disc absent. Ovary globular; style 0.5-1 mm long, thin; stigmas 2, 0.5-0.7 mm long, inside long papillose. Fruiting perianth 5-10 mm diam., wings papery, usually smoke-coloured or pale, tepals above the wings + flat, incurved, forming a flat dome covering the utricle fully or partly; seed 1.2-2.5 mm diam.. - 2n = 18 (Semiotrocheva 1983, Kazakhstan).
Fl. Per.: August-October.
Type: [Russia]: In colle ruderato nitroso Scharenoi Bugor, paulo supra Astrachaniam ad ipsam Volgam sito, P.S. Pallas.(probably lost).
Very common in lower and medium altitudes from about 500-2000 m except for the forest regions, on slightly to moderately saline soils, preferably on ruderal sites, along irrigation, on naturally disturbed habitats like steep slopes, runnels, along dry river beds etc., in drier salt-marshes and in many types of semi-desert vegetation.
In Pakistan, the species is less variable than in other areas. Noteworthy is the occasional occurrence of specimens with sparsely pilose tepal backs (e.g. Tahir Ali 1487), which make them similar to its close relative S. incanescens C.A.Meyer. In lower altitudes, S. nitraria is easily confounded with young individuals of S. imbricata. Except for the smaller fruits and the perennial woody habit they agree almost completely. It is rather strange that Tzvelev recently split S. nitraria from the related species and raised it to the separate genus Nitrosalsola; Distribution: From C Turkey and Ukraina east to W China, and from the northern Caspian lowlands to N Saudi Arabia, S Iran and Pakistan.
Irano-Turanian, only marginaly and usually as an adventive penetrating into adjacent Saharo-Sindian territories.