Citrus aurantium var. sinensis Linn.
Spinous tree, up to 10 m tall; spines few slender and flexible. Leaves aromatic 7.5-11 cm, ovate-oblong to ovate, entire or serrulate, acute to obtuse. Petiole narrowly winged, wings oblanceolate. Flowers axillary, in 1-6-flowered cymes. Petals reflexed. Stamens c. 20. Fruit oblate to slightly oval, 6-9 cm in diameter. Rind deep yellow to orange-red; thick or thin; pulp orange-yellow or reddish, sweet or slightly acidic.
Fl. Per.: March-May. Fr. Per.: Sept.-Oct.
Type: Described from India.
Widely cultivated in the Punjab (especially Sargodha, Gujranwala), Peshawar and Sind region.
The sweet orange is one of the most popular of citrus fruits. Extensively consumed as fresh fruit, in juices, squashes etc.
Many varieties are cultivated in Pakistan. Some of the commonest are as follows:
(a) Mosambi (Mozambique) Fruit globose, c. 6.5-7 cm in diameter, apex marked with a circular ring. Pulp very sweet.
(b) Bloodred: Fruit smaller, c. 5.5-7 cm in diameter. Rind thin. Pulp orange streaked with red, or ruby-red; very juicy, acid sweet. The Gujranwala Distt. is famous for its bloodred oranges.
(c) Washington Navel. Fruit somewhat longer than broad, 8-9 cm in diameter; rind deep orange, apex marked with a distinct open or closed
navel, containing a rudimentary secondary fruit. Pulp juicy, sweet,
highly flavoured. Seeds few or none.