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Pakistan | Family List



National Herbarium, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.

Usually evergreen perennial trees and shrubs, rarely herbs or climbers; glandular punctate. Leaves simple or compound, sometimes reduced to spines, alternate or opposite, exstipulate. Inflorescence solitary, axillary or terminal cymes, panicles, rarely simple racemes. Flowers bisexual or sometimes staminate. Sepals (3-) 4-5, free or basally united. Petals (3-) 4-5, imbricate. Stamens equal or twice the number of petals or more, filaments free or mono- or poly-adelphous. Ovary 4-5-locular, superior; styles free or united, as many as the carpels. Fruit a capsule, berry, drupe or schizocarp. Placentation axile. Seeds oblong or reniform.

A large family comprising 150 genera and c. 1200 species (wild and cultivated) distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of SE. Asia, Mediterranean countries, N. America, Australia and S. Africa.

The members of the family are strongly aromatic, containing essential oils. Many genera show hardy and xerophytic characters.

Represented in Pakistan by 11 genera and 27 species, many of which have been naturalized here, being cultivated and hybridized for edible, medicinal and ornamental purposes.

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under P.L. 480 and to Mr. C. Townsend, Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew & Mr. I.C. Hedge, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh for their helpful suggestions.

1 Leaves simple   (2)
+ Leaves compound   (4)
2 (1) Stamens 4-5 Fruit a fleshy drupe   Skimmia
+ Stamens more than 5, free or polyadelphous. Fruit capsular or hesperidium   (3)
3 (2) Stamens 10, filaments subulate, pubescent/barbate inside. Fruit a capsule, usually dehiscent   Haplophyllum
+ Stamens 4-10 times the petals, polyadelphous, filaments compressed at base. Fruit a fleshy hesperidium   Citrus
4 (1) Flowers long and showy. Petals c. 3 cm long, with the lowest petals declinate   Dictamnus
+ Flowers not large. Petals less than 3 cm long. None of the petals declinate   (5)
5 (4) Leaves pinnately compound, leaflets more than 3   (6)
+ Leaves tri-foliolate   Poncirus
6 (5) Leaflets obovate to obcordate. Ovary with a gynophore Capsule splitting   Boenninghausenia
+ Leaflets neither obovate nor obcordate. Gynophore absent   (7)
7 (6) Flowers usually unisexual. Fruit a schizocarp, splitting or not   Zanthoxylum
+ Flowers bisexual. Fruit a berry   (8)
8 (7) Leaflets 5-27. Stamens 5+5, filaments alternately short   Murraya
+ Leaflets 1-5. Stamens 8-many and of the same length   (9)
9 (8) Fruit c. 6 mm in diameter. Rind not woody   Glycosmis
+ Fruit 5-10 cm in diameter. Rind woody   (10)
10 (9) Style short, stigma capitate or obtuse. Leaves alternate   Aegle
+ Style absent, stigma fusiform. Leaves spirally arranged   Limonia

  • List of lower taxa


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