Prunella vulgaris L., Sp. Pl. 600. 1753. Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 409. 1848; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 670. 1885; Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 14, 1: 149. 1940; Kitamura, Pl. W. Pak. & Afghan. 129. 1964; Hedge & Lamond in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 28: 133. 1968; Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 630. 1972; Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 150: 254. 1982; Kaul, Weed Fl. Kashmir valley 238. 1986; Tuljaganova in Vvedensky, Conspect. Fl. As. Med. 9: 73. 1987.
Vern.: "Self-Heal", "Kalaveuth".
Perennial with a fibrous rooted creeping rhizome. Stems erect or ascending, solitary or few, usually unbranched, quadrangular, purplish coloured or not, 8-30 cm, leafy, with an indumentum of antrorse eglandular hairs. Leaves narrow oblong to ovate-oblong, 3-5 (-6) x 1-2.5 cm, entire to irregularly crenate, sparingly pilose with adpressed white hairs, narrowly to broadly cuneate, apically acute; petiole on lower leaves to 2 cm; uppermost pair of leaves ± sessile. Inflorescence a terminal cylindrical spike, 1.5-6 x 1.5 cm. Bracts broadly ovate-cordate, c. 5 mm broad, ciliate-fringed, purplish or green. Calyx 7-8 mm, purplish or green, narrowly tubular campanulate, with scattered long white eglandular hairs, scarcely veined in flower; upper lip truncate with 3 very short mucronulate teeth; lower lip deeply divided into 2 narrow lanceolate teeth; fruiting calyx c. 9 mm long, flattened with a closed mouth. Corolla violet to purple, 10-12 mm; tube straight. Nutlets c. 1.8 x 1 mm, smooth, pale brown, mucilaginous on wetting.
Fl. Per.: June-August.
Type: Europe (LINN 752/2 - microfiche!).
Distribution: Throughout most of Europe, N. Africa, N. America and Asia; naturalised in other temperate parts of the world such as Australia and southern Africa.