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Pakistan | Family List | Poaceae


Annual or perennial herbs. Leaf-blades narrow; ligule ciliate or a ciliate membrane, rarely completely membranous. Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle, or of 1-sided spikes or racemes, these digitate or scattered along an axis, rarely solitary; rhachis tough. Spikelets all alike, 2-many-flowered with the upper-most florets reduced (rarely 1-flowered), usually strongly laterally compressed, rarely terete; rhachilla usually disarticulating below each floret, but a variety of other modes of abscission also occur; glumes persistent or not, membranous to coriaceous, mostly shorter than the spikelet; lemmas membranous to cartilaginous, typically 3-nerved, entire, emarginate or 2-lobed, awnless or awned from the tip (except Bewsia); palea hyaline, usually falling with the lemma, sometimes persistent; lodicules 2; anthers 2-3; stigmas 2. Grain with large embryo and punctiform or ellipsoid hilum; starch grains compound. Chromosomes small, basic number 10.

Genera ± 50; throughout the tropics; 16 genera and 33 species in Pakistan.

Paniculate genera of Eragrostideae are outwardly very similar to Poeae, being distinguished mainly by the 3-nerved lemma (there are a few exceptions). Internal details of leaf anatomy, however, are very different, and the two tribes are quite unrelated.

1 Lemmas 5-nerved, the 2 lowermost barren and resembling the glumes   Tetrachne
+ Lemmas 3(-5)-nerved, the lowermost fertile   (2)
2 (1) Lemmas usually entire at the apex, obtuse, acute or acuminate, sometimes mucronate, or if 2-toothed (Acrachne) then glabrous near the margins and along the side nerves; cleistogamous spikelets (cleistogenes) not developed in the axils of the leaf-sheaths   (3)
+ Lemmas usually emarginate or 2-4-toothed or lobed at the apex, rarely entire but then hairy along the nerves, frequently mucronate or awned   (12)
3 (2) Glumes aristate or aristate-acuminate; spikelets sessile on the flattened branches of a narrow panicle, 2-3-flowered   Dinebra
+ Glumes obtuse, acute or acuminate, rarely the upper awned but the spikelets then in digitate spikes (Dactyloctenium)   (4)
4 (3) Internodes of the rhachilla bearded at the tip with long hairs up to half the length of the lemma; spike-lets sub-sessile or shortly pedicelled on the erect branches of a contracted elongated panicle   Halopyrum
+ Internodes of the rhachilla glabrous or only shortly hairy   (5)
5 (4) Spikelets in open, contracted or spike-like panicles   Eragrostis
+ Spikelets sessile or very shortly pedicelled, loosely to densely imbricate in digitate or racemosely arranged spikes or spike-like racemes, very rarely in solitary spikes   (6)
6 (5) Lemmas softly villous all over; spikelets loosely imbricate in loosely panicled racemes   Orinus
+ Lemmas glabrous or shortly hairy in the lower part or on the nerves; spikelets closely to densely imbricate, biseriate   (7)
7 (6) Axis of the spikes terminating with a sharp point; upper glume mucronate or awned; spikes digitate   Dactyloctenium
+ Axis and branches of the inflorescence ending in a spikelet   (8)
8 (7) Lemmas ± rounded on the back or only slightly keeled above the middle; grain coarsely wrinkled, sub-globose, deeply hollowed out on the face   Coelachyrum
+ Lemmas acutely keeled   (9)
9 (8) Spikelets falling entire at maturity from the axis of straight spikes, the latter numerous and crowded into a long narrow dense panicle; glumes 1-nerved   Desmostachya
+ Spikelets breaking up at maturity; spikes few to several   (10)
10 (9) Spikes usually in pseudowhorls or scattered; lemmas with the lateral nerves running out into minute teeth and the middle nerve into a mucro or short awn   Acrachne
+ Spikes digitate or subdigitate; lemmas entire   (11)
11 (10) Spikes persistent   Eleusine
+ Spikes deciduous at maturity   Ochthochloa
12 (2) Spikelets in panicles or in racemosely arranged spikes or spike-like racemes   (13)
+ Spikelets in solitary terminal secund spikes or a pair of divergent or dorsally adpressed spikes (spikes rarely digitate)   (16)
13 (12) Cleistogenes developed in the axils of the lower leaf-sheaths; florets exserted from the glumes; spikelets in lax panicles   Kengia
+ Cleistogenes not developed in the axils of the lower leaf-sheaths   (14)
14 (13) Tall reed-like grasses with large dense plumose panicles; lemma hairy on the margins, the hairs as long as the lemma   Neyraudia
+ Spikelets in slender, ± secund, racemosely arranged racemes   (15)
15 (14) Racemes loosely spiculate; spikelets linear-oblong, subterete; lemmas ± rounded on the back   Diplachne
+ Racemes mostly densely spiculate, conspicuously secund; spikelets oblong, laterally compressed; lemmas keeled   Leptochloa
16 (12) All florets fertile; lowest lemma less than 4 mm long; lateral nerves and keels glabrous   Tripogon
+ Upper 1-3 florets sterile, reduced to empty lemmas; lowest lemma up to 6.5 mm long, shortly hairy on the lateral nerves and keel, or if less than 4 mm long then long-ciliate on the lateral nerves and keel   Tetrapogon

  • List of lower taxa


    Related Objects  

    Flora of China  
  • FOC22_22_Eragrostideae.pdf
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