3. Morus nigra L., Sp. Pl. 986. 1753. DC., Prodr. 17:238. 1873; Bolas., Fl. Or. 4:1153. 1879; Yarmolenko in Fl. U.R.S.S. 5: 377. 1936; Tulin in Fl. Iraq. Europ. 1: 66. 1964; R.R. Stewart, l.c. 195; Townsend, Fl. Iraq. 4(1): 82. Pl. 16. fig. 1-6. 1980; Browicz in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 153: 2. 1982.1.
English: Black Mulberry.
Vern.: Shah Tut.
A monoecious cc dioecious, medium or small sized tree, upto 10 m tall a compact spreading wide crown. Trunk 1-2 m in circumference with fissured rough bark, tender twigs reddish-brown, densely hairy. Leaves with a striate, (1.5-) 2-3.5 (-4) cm long, hairy petiole; lamina broad ovate, nearly as broad long, (5) 6-12.5 (-20) cm long and broad, scabrous above, pubescent almost all over the lower surface including the ultimate veinlets, 4-5-costate from deeply cordate base, margins crenate-dentate, sometimes 2-5-lobed, apex acuminate; stipules lanceolate, 6-10 mm long, pale-brown, hairy. Male catkins 25-35 mm long, including densely hairy, upto 10 mm long peduncle. flowers: sepals free, broadly ovate, c. 2.5-3 mm long, c. 23 mm wide, deeply concave, lanate-hairy outside; stamens with boradly oval, ± exserted anther. Female catkins oval, 15-28 mm long including 6-8 mm long, hairy peduncles. Female flowers: sepals broadly elliptic, c. 3-3.5 mm long, 2.5-3 mm broad, hairy outside; ovary with densely white hairy, divergent styles. Sorosis ovoid oblong, 15-25 mm long excluding peduncles, dark purple to black, strongly acidic until mature, edible.
Fl. Per.: March-July.
Type: Habitat in Italiae maritimis, Herb. Linn. 1112/3 (LINN).
Distribution: Native area obscure, cultivated and subspontaneous in N.W. Pakistan westwards to Asia minor, Central and South Europe, North Africa Central Asia; introduced to U.S.A.
The leaves are used for feeding silkworms and their infusion is used to bring down blood sugar level and reduction of arterial pressure. The sweet, flavoured fruits are considered refrigerant and laxative. Jams, jellies and squash is prepared from the fruits.