All Floras      Advanced Search
Page 1 Login | eFloras Home | Help
Pakistan | Family List



Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.

Ficus benghalensis var. benghalensis

Credit: M. Rafiq

Deciduous or evergreen, armed or unarmed, monoecious or dioecious trees or shrubs rarely climbers, herbs or hemi-epiphytic, with a milky latex. Leaves petiolate simple, entire, serrate or lobed, palmately or pinnately 3-5-costate; stipules 2, lateral, fugaceous and leaving a distinct annular scar. Inflorescence axillary cymes usually in the form of racemes, often catkins, globose heads, spikes or hypenthodium. Flowers minute, unisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous to epigynous. Sepals (2-3-) 4 (-6), occasionally absent, biseriate, free, or valvate or ± united, enveloping the carpel in female flowers, persistent. Petals absent. Stamens as many as sepals, often less, antisepalous, filaments or erect in bud, free with dithecous, versatile, longitudinally dehiscent anthers; pistillode present or absent in male flowers. Ovary bicarpellate, one carpel frequently abortive, superior or inferior, unilocular, ovule solitary, anatropous campylotropous, pendulous from the apex, rarely basal and upright; styles 2 (-1), filiform, simple or forked. Fruit a simple drupe, nut or achene, or sometimes sorosis or syconium. Seeds surrounded by endocarp, endospermous or exalbuminous; embryo mostly curved.

A family of c. 40 genera and c. 1400 species, distributed in tropical, subtropical and a few in temperate regions. Represented in Pakistan by 5 genera and, of which 16 are native.

Acknowledgements: we are grateful to Prof. E.J.H. Corner (Cambridge), Mr. I.C. Hedge (Edinburgh) and Dr. C.C. Berg (Utrecht) for going through the manuscript and offering suggestions for its improvement. The financial assistance received form the United States Department of Agriculture under P.L. 480 with the coordination of the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, is thankfully acknowledged.

1 Male and female flowers borne inside a closed, urceolate fleshy receptacle (hypanthodium). Fruit a syconium   1 Ficus
+ Male and female flowers borne externally, in a dense to lax catkin, spike or head   (2)
2 (1) Plants with axillary spines. Male flowers pedicellate, in a loose raceme   2 Maclura
+ Plants spineless. Male flowers sessile in catkins or spikes   (3)
3 (2) Stipules leaving a large amplexicaul scar. Stamens erect in bud. Fruit a massive spinous-warted syncarp   3 Artocarpus
+ Stipules leaving a small or no scar. Stamens inflexed in bud. Fruit not massive   (4)
4 (3) Female flowers in globose heads, with tubular calyx. Winter buds with 2 or 3 scales   4 Broussonetia
+ Female flowers in ovoid or cylindrical catkins, with free imbricate sepals. Winter buds with 3-6 scales   5 Morus

Lower Taxa

Related Synonym(s):


Related Objects  

Flora of China  
  • PDF File
  • PDF
    Interactive Keys by Xiangying Wen  
  • Arctocarpus sp. (Xiangying Wen)
  • Image/JPEG
  • Ficus sp. (Xiangying Wen)
  • Image/JPEG
  • Maclura pomifera (Xiangying Wen)
  • Image/JPEG
  • Moraceae sp. (Xiangying Wen)
  • Image/JPEG
  • Moraceae sp. (Hong Song)
  • Image/JPEG
  • Moraceae sp. (Xiangying Wen)
  • Image/JPEG

     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |