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Pakistan | Family List | Moraceae

1. Ficus L., Sp. Pl. 1059. 1753. Can. H. ed. 5. 482. 1754; Hutch., Can. Fl. A. 2:175. 1967; Corner in Gard. Bull. Singapore 21(1): 1-185. 1965; in Dass. & Fosb. Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon. 3: 230.1981.


Ficus benghalensis var. benghalensis

Credit: M. Rafiq

Monoecious or functionally dioecious trees, shrubs or root climbers, twiners and hemi-epiphytes, often with adventitious roots. Leaves simple, alternate or rarely opposite, entire or serrate, palmately lobed, obtuse or acute or acuminate, deciduous or persistent; stipules connate (single) or free lateral closing the terminal bud, caducous, leaving annular scars. Inflorescence axillary or cauliflorous, globular or pyriform rarely oblong, fleshy hollow hypanthodium with a terminal ostiole with scales spreading across outside or pointing vertically downwards. Flowers numerous, borne on inner side of hypanthodium, of 4 types (male, female, gall and sterile male or neuter), sessile or pedicellate, bracteate. Male flowers: ostiolar in one or several rows or dispersed among female within; calyx 2-6-lobed or partite, lobes imbricate, sometimes reduced scales; stamens 1.2 (-3.6), filaments upright, anthers ovate or oblong, dithecous with apical crescentric or equatorial transverse dehiscence or tetrathecous with longitudinally introrse dehiscence; pistillode vestigial or absent. Female flowers often numerous, borne away from the ostiole, usually dispersed; calyx variable in size and number, sometimes reduced or wanting; ovary straight or, oblique, unilocular, with solitary, pendulous bitegmic ovule; style eccentric or subapical to gynobasic, stigma bifid or simple; staminodes absent. Gall flowers: abundant and disperse, each with sterile often pedicellate ovary, enclosing one developing insect. Neuter flowers: a few or absent, with calyx only. Fruit ± fleshy, smooth or ribbed, with or without sclerotic cells, sometimes orificially splitting, figs enclosing a large number of thinly pulpy, white or brown, minute, 1-seeded druplets or achenes. Seeds often compressed, with membranous coat and incurved embryo, often exalbuminous.

Nearly 1000 species, distributed in tropics and subtropics, especially Indo-malesia and Polynesia. Represented in Pakistan by 24 species, of which 11 are native.

1 Root climbers or creepers. Hypanthodia pedunculate   (2)
+ Trees, shrubs or stranglers   (3)
2 (1) Hypanthodia globose to ovoid or obovoid, 8-15 mm in diameter   1 Ficus sarmentosa
+ Hypanthodia subglobose to pyriform or obovoid-turbinate, 20-30 mm in diameter (cultivated)   2 Ficus pumila
3 (1) Hypanthodia borne on trunk or main old branches (cauliflorous)   (4)
+ Hypanthodia borne on young branches in leaf axils or behind the leaves (not cauliflorous).   (7)
4 (3) Leaves opposite, rarely subopoosite. Figs pale-green or greenish-yellow   3 Ficus hispida
+ Leaves alternate. Figs pink, purple-brown or rose-red   (5)
5 (4) Leaf-base highly unequal-sided, with a large lower lobe overlapping the petiole. Hypanthodia 10-12 mm in diameter   4 Ficus semicordata
+ Leaf base equal sided. Hypanthodia more than 15 mm in diameter   (6)
6 (5) Young twigs hollow. Lamina broadly ovate to rotundate-ovate, softly pubescent beneath   5 Ficus auriculata
+ Young twigs not hollow. Lamina narrowly ovate-lanceolate to ± elliptic-lanceolate glabrous on both sides. (Cultivated)   6 Ficus racemosa
7 (3) Lateral nerves not parallel in leaf blade   (8)
+ Lateral nerves parallel in leaf blade   (10)
8 (7) Leaves more than 15 cm long; stipules more than 5 cm long. Figs yellowish-brown or dark reddish-brown to purple   (9)
+ Leaves less than 15 cm long; stipules less than 1.5 cm long. Figs orange-red. (Cultivated)   7 Ficus benjamina
9 (8) Lamina glabrous on both sides. Lateral nerves more than 20 pairs, almost spreading parallel, intercostals absent. (Cultivated)   8 Ficus elastica
+ -lamina silvery to rusty dotted beneath. Lateral nerves up to 20 pairs, ± ascending parallel, intercostals present. (Cultivated)   9 Ficus macrophylla
10 (7) Leaves fiddle-shaped or pandurate   10 Ficus lyrata
+ Leaves not as above   (11)
11 (10) Leaves 3-5-lobed   (12)
+ Leaves unlobed or slightly lobed   (13)
12 (11) Leaf-lobes spathulate, densely soft hairy, especially on nerves beneath, apically few dentate. Petiole frequently more than 2- cm long   11 Ficus carica
+ eaf-lobes not spathulate, slightly hairy to glabrescent scabrous beneath. Petiole up to 2 (-3) cm long   12 Ficus johannis
13 (11) Hypanthodia pedunculate   (26)
+ Hypanthodia sessile or subsessile   (14)
14 (13) Leaves rusty or whitish pubescent beneath at least when young, glabrous above   (15)
+ Leaves completely glabrous on both sides   (17)
15 (14) Hypanthodia 1.5-2 cm in diameter, pinkish-red on maturity   13 Ficus benghalensis
+ Hypanthodia less than 1.5-2 cm in diameter, yellow to orange-red or rusty-brown on maturity   (16)
16 (15) Leaves ovate to elliptic-oblong, nerve angles without glands beneath. Hypanthodia rusty pubescent, warted.   14 Ficus rubiginosa
+ Leaves polymorphic, broadly obovate-oblanceolate, spathulate or elliptic to deltoid, midrib foked or simple and penninerved with glands in forks or axils of nerves beneath. Hypanthodia glabrous. (Cultivated)   15 Ficus deltoidea
17 (14) Hypanthodia shortly pedunculate   (18)
+ Hypanthodia sessile   (20)
18 (17) Petiole up to 1 cm long. Lateral nerves 4-6 pairs. Figs yellow, warty   16 Ficus subincisa
+ Petiole more than 1.5 cm long. Lateral nerves more than 6 pairs. Figs pink-purple or reddish   (19)
19 (18) Figs hairy with black spots, 12-15 mm in diameter   17 Ficus virens
+ Figs glabrous, 8-10 mm in diameter   18 Ficus neriifolia
20 (17) Leaves deltoid-ovate with more than 2 cm long acumen   (21)
+ Leaves not deltoid-ovate, with less than 2 cm long acumen   (22)
21 (20) Leaf acumen about ½ as long as lamina; stipules small   19 Ficus religiosa
+ leaf acumen about ¼ as long as lamina; stipules large   20 Ficus rumphii
22 (20) Figs up to 10 mm in diameter   (23)
+ Figs more than 10 mm in diameter   (25)
23 (22) Petiole glandular at tip, articulate to the obtuse-truncate base of lamina   22 Ficus tsjahela
+ Petiole neither glandular at tip nor articulate to cuneate base of lamina   (24)
24 (23) Lamina glossy-coriaceous, elliptic-ovate to obovate or rhomboid, obtuse to subacute with a blunt short acumen, rarely retuae. (Cultivated)   21 Ficus microcarpa
+ Lamina not glossy-coriaceous, lanceolate to narrowly ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate with a gradually narrowed long acute acumen   18 Ficus neriifolia
25 (22) Petiole with a terminal gland. Lamina acute or ± obtusely short acuminate. Ovary white   23 Ficus amplissima
+ Petiole without a terminal gland. Lamina with 10-15 mm long acumen. Ovary reddish brown   17 Ficus virens
26 (13) Leaves polymorphic with the midrib forked or simple and penninerved, black glands present in forks or axils of nerves beneath   15 Ficus deltoidea
+ Leaves not polymorphic, without glands in the axis of nerves beneath   (27)
27 (26) Young shoots, lower surface of lamina and figs. rusty-pubescent   14 Ficus rubiginosa
+ Not as above   (28)
28 (27) Leaves scabrous above, soft hairy to glabrescent beneath   (29)
+ Leaves completely glabrous on both sides   (30)
29 (28) Lamina usually longer than broad, serrate, basally cordate   11 Ficus carica
+ Lamina nearly as long as broad, dentate-serrate, basally cunsate to rotundate or truncate-subcordate   24 Ficus palmata
30 (28) Petiole up to 10 mm long. Lamina with 4-6 pain of lateral nerves. Figs dimorphdic, yellow, warty   16 Ficus subincisa
+ Petiole more than 10 mm long. Lamina with 7-15 pairs of lateral nerves. Figs not dimorphic, pink-purple or reddish   (31)
31 (30) Petiole articulate to the obtuse-truncate base of lamina. Figs 12-15 mm in diameter   17 Ficus virens
+ Petiole not articulate to the cuneate base of lamina. Figs 8-12 mm in diameter   18 Ficus neriifolia

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