5. Chenopodium murale Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 219. 1753; Boiss., Fl. Or. 4: 902. 1879; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 4. 1886; Iljin & Aellen in Kom., Fl. URSS 6: 55; 1936; Brenan in Milne-Redhead & Turrill, Fl. Trop. E Afr., Chenopod.: 7. 1954; Grubov, Pl. As. Centr. 2: 15. 1966; Aellen in P.H.Davis, Fl. Turk. 2: 302. 1967; R.R.Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 221. 1972; Bhopal & Chaudhri in Pak. Syst. 1: 45. 1977; Kung & Chu in Kung & Tsien, Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 25(2): 76. 1979; Mullin in Hara et al., Fl. Pl. Nepal 3: 170. 1982; Mandaville, Fl. E Saudi Arabia: 76. 1990; Uotila in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 172: 38. 1997; Al-Turki & A.Ghafoor in Feddes Repert. 107: 200. 1996; Chaudhary, Fl. Kingd. Saudi Arabia 1: 163. 1999. (Fig.4, E-H1).
Chenopodium ilicifolium Griff., Not. Pl. asiat. 4:337. 1854; Ic. Pl. asiat. 4: Plate 521. 1854.
Annual, stem yellowish to green-striped, rarely tinged with red, to 70(-90) cm, usually erect, often much branched especially in basal parts, branches ± spreading, lowermost subopposite. Leaves usually olive green, sometimes yellowish or tinged with red, ± farinose; petiole shorter than or equal to blade; blade thin to somewhat fleshy, 1-8(-10) cm long, usually broad, (triangular -) broadly ovate - broadly trullate (- rhombic), coarsely dentate, not 3-lobed, teeth often slightly incurved and acute to obtuse, apex acute to obtuse, base variously attenuate to truncate; uppermost leaves lanceolate, sometimes entire. Inflorescence terminal and axillary, mostly leafy, divaricately branched, branches shorter than subtending leaves, glomerules small, ± densely arranged. Flowers bisexual and sometimes female. Perianth segments 5, connate below the middle, prominently keeled near apex, green, sometimes red when old, vesicular hairy. Stamens 5. Stigmas 2. Fruits falling with perianth. Pericarp prominently papillose, firmly adherent. Seeds horizontal, black, 1.1-1.4 mm in diameter, round in outline, margin acutely keeled; testa prominently pitted, pits not elongated.
Fl. & Fr. Per.: January-July (-November).
Lectotype: ‘Habitat in Europae muris aggeribusque’, Herb. Linn. No. 313/6 (LINN!). Brenan in Milne-Redhead & Turrill, Fl. Trop. E Afr., Chenopod.: 7, 1954.
Gardens, fields, roadsides, palm plantations, stream sides. 50-1675 m; Distribution: From C and S Europe, N Africa to Caucasia, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, India, Ceylon and to the Arabian peninsula; introduced in subtropical and tropical C, E and S Africa, America, Australia and Oceanic islands.
Probably the most common species of Chenopodium in lowland parts of the area. Usually easily recognized by its rather hidden inflorescence, small, ± densely arranged glomerules, yellowish to pure green colour, and always by its clearly pitted testa and acute margin of the seed.