22a. Salsola crassa subsp. turcomanica (Litv.) Freitag in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 172: 250. (Figs. 26, E, I; 29, F). 1997; 29, F). 1997.
S. turcomanica Litv. in Sched. Herb. Fl. Ross. 2: no. 230. 1900; Iljin in Fl. SSSR 6: 234. 1936. Kitamura, Fl. Afgh. 105. 1960; Mobayen, Fl. pl. vasc. Iran 2: 258. 1979; Climacoptera turcomanica (Litv.) Botsch. in Sborn. Posv. Akad. Sukachevu: 112. 1956; Soskov in Ovcz., Fl. Tadzh. SSR 3: 416. 1968; Pratov in Consp. F. As. Med. 3: 106. 1968; Pratov, Rod Climacopotera Botsch. 19. 1986; Czerepan., Vasc. Pl. Russia States 183. 1995; Salsola crassa var. subglabra C.A. Mey. in Eichw., Pl. nov.: 35. 1833; Halanthium lipskyi Paulsen in Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kjöbenhavn, Ser. 6, 5: 203.1903; Salsola ferganica Drob. in Trudy Bot. Muz. Akad. Nauk 16: 141. 1916; Climacoptera ferganica (Drob.) Botsch., l.c.: 112.1956; Grubov, Pl. As. Centr. 2: 97. 1966; Salsola transoxana Iljin in Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. 1: 127. 1936; Iljin in Fl. SSSR 6: 230. 1936; Climacoptera transoxana (Iljin) Botsch., l.c.: 112. 1956; Grubov, Pl. As. Centr. 2: 99. 1966;Soskov in Ovcz., Fl. Tadzh. SSR 3: 414. 1968; Pratov in Consp. Fl. As. Med. 3: 104. 1968; Pratov, Rod Climacoptera Botsch. 29. 1986; Czerepan., Vasc. Pl. Russia States 183. 1995; Cl. glaberrima Botsch. in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast.: 75. 1982; Pratov, Rod Climacoptera 39. 1986; Cl. iraqensis Botsch., l.c. 19: 76. 1982; Pratov, Rod Climacoptera Botsch. 20. 1986; Cl. khalisica Botsch., l.c. 19: 78. 1982; Pratov, Rod Climacoptera Botsch., 31. 1986; Cl. chorassanica Pratov in Bot. Zhurn.SSSR 70: 681. 1985; Pratov, Rod Climacoptera Botsch. 21. 1986; Cl. botschantzevii Pratov, l.c. 70: 683.1985; Pratov, Rod Climacoptera Botsch. 31. 1986.
Annual, 10-40 cm high, glaucous with a thick waxy layer, or grey, young plants at least in lower part white with an arachnoid indumentum of up to 4 mm long delicate, interwoven hairs, adult plants in almost all parts with spreading short hairs 0.2-0.4 mm long. Main stem erect or ascending, branched from the up to 7 mm thick base; branches usually ascending, terminating in dense spikes; whitish, but with distinct green decurrrent bases of leaves and bracts, up to 2 mm long in lower part and 3-4 mm higher up. Leaves spreading or recurved, 5-20 mm long, the longer + linear, 3-1.5 mm wide, the others triangular from a 4-3 mm wide base, beneath obtusely keeled, with prominent white line. Bracts leaf-like, 15-5 mm long, with a 5-4 mm wide sheathing base, the lower longer, the upper as long as or shorter than bracteoles. Bracteoles 7-4 mm long, at base 4-2.5 mm wide. Tepals coriaceous, narrow ovate, 3-4 mm long, the outer 1.5-2 mm wide, 3-veined, the innermost 1-veined, transverse line at 1/5-1/4, from there to the obtuse apex pilose throughout or in lower part only; without a green blotch. Anthers without the large appendage 1.3-1.6 x 0.5 mm, linear, divided up to the appendage; appendages shortly stalked, globular to ellipsoid, about as wide as anther and 2/3 of its length; filaments 2-2.3 x 0.2 mm; disc absent. Ovary globular; style absent; stigmas linear, 1.7-2 mm long, shortly exserted. Fruiting perianth 10-14 mm diam., wings overlapping, in one plane, distinctly unequal, the 2 inner linear to spathulate, initially often pink, later light or dark brown,linear; tepal lobes separated from the wings by a distinct cleft, the cap 3.5-4.2 mm diam., densely covered by erect 0.3-0.4 mm long hairs, the column c. 2 mm long, with ascending 0.2-0.3 mm long hairs. Utricle 2.3-2.6 mm diam., usually horizontal, but at first often vertical.
Fl. Per.: July-August.
Holotype: [Turkmenistan] Transcaspia, in deserto argilloso subsalso pr. Ashkhabad, 23.9.1898, D.I. Litwinow, Herb. Fl. Ross. 230, (LE!); iso- (C!, H!, LE!, WU!).
Locally common on strongly or moderately saline marl and other weak sedimentary rocks, often on eroded slopes; also on loamy soils and clay at the edge of cultivation, on fallow fields, along ditches, at the edge of irrigated fields etc., from 1200-2000 m; Distribution: From Turkmenistan east to Uzbekistan, S Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan and Xinjiang in W China; south to Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan; with exclaves in Syria and Iraq.
Up to very recently (Freitag 1997), in the literature relevant to the flora of Pakistan the species was cited erroneously under the name S. lanata Pall.
(Burkill 1909, Stewart 1972). Indeed, that species looks very similar, but it differs by a very long style divided at its apex in 2 short stigmas. S. lanata is also an Irano-Turanian species; nevertheless its area reaches only to SW and to C Afghanistan.
Subject of variation are indument, size of anther and appendage, and presence or absence of a very short style. For the time being the concept realized in Flora Iranica is maintained here. The specimens seen so far from Pakistan are comparatively uniform as far as they bear the respective organs. They agree best with the type material of S. turcomanica except for larger anther appendages and slightly smaller tepals.