14. Rosa X alba L., Sp. Pl. 492. 1753. Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 364. 1878, Lindl., Ros. Monogr. 81. 1820, Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 228. 1879, Crépin, Prim. Monogr. Ros. 602. 1880, Willm., The genus Rosa 2. 21: 409. 1912.
Herbarium, Institute of Dendrology, PL-62-035, Kórnik (near Poznań), Poland.
Shrub up to 2 m tall, with erect or slightly arching stems. Prickles irregularly se t on the stems, usually hooked and uniform. Leaflets 5-7, (broadly) ovate to broadly elliptic, obtuse, acute, or shortly acuminate at apex, simply serrate, medium-sized, dull green end, glabrous above, paler, grey-green, ± hairy beneath. Flowers solitary or 3(-5) rarely more, white or rarely pale pink, simple or usually double or semidouble, rarely simple. Pedicels usually as long or longer than fruit, with stalked glands. Fruit (if present) ellipsoid or ovoid, red wh en mature, usually smooth. Achenes usually only partly developed. Planted, sometimes naturalized.
Lectotype: ‘Habitat in Europe.’ RCN: 3747. Herb. Linn. No. 652.44 (LINN) (Jarvis, Order out of Chaos, 798.2007).
A-7 Hone Chitral, 1859 M. Qutabuddin & al. (RAW), B-7 6 miles from Abbottabad on way to Nowshera, S. Abedin & M. Qaiser 8645 (KUH), E-4 Mastung (Quetta) Baluchistan, R. Akhter 12655 (RAW).
Rosa x alba is an old hybrid between Rosa canina s.l. and some of the ‘ancient’ roses, probably Rosa damascene. Very polymorphic, with many, sometimes local, garden froms. Planted as ornamental or rarely for perfume production.
Cultivated in many countries for the extraction of oil (otto, attar). Flowers are also used in fevers and for palpitation of heart (Kirtikar & Basu, Ind. Med. Pl. 2: 982. 1918).