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Pakistan | Family List | Pakistan V. 184 | Cupressaceae | Juniperus

Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb, Fl. Taur. Cauc. 2:425. 1828; Brandis, For. Fl.Ind. 538. t. 68.1874 (Fig. 4, C, D).

  • Juniperus macropoda Boiss
  • Juniperus polycarpos C. Koch.

    Monoecious medium sized trees. Leaves on upper branches scale‑like, opposite, decussate, 1.5‑2 mm long, broadly ovate, closely appressed, on the lower branches subulate, 6‑8 mm long, pungent. Male cones terminal on branchlets, scales imbricate. Berries subglobose, blue‑black when ripe, ± 10 mm broad. Seeds 3‑5, brownish‑yellow, testa thick.

    Type: Caucasus, Pallas (LE).

    `Pencil cedar' is fairly common, forming open forests in Baluchistan and the inner drier valleys of the Himalaya from 2000‑4000 m. The wood is used for fuel, beams and for pencil‑making. Also used as an incense. Fruit is medicinal. The seed number varies from 2‑5. Specimens examined from Baluchistan and R. R. Stewart 26398 from Nomal have large fruits that are 4‑5 seeded, the seeds being larger and harder. The other gatherings mainly from the N. W. Himalaya resembles J. indica Bertol. (J. wallichiana Hook. f., & Thoms.. ex Brandis) but the fruits are not 1seeded. According to R. R. Stewart (Annot, Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 27.1972), J. indica is found chiefly east of Kashmir. J. seravschanica Korn. from Soviet C. Asia is closely related to J. excelsa and may not be specifically different. Common name: `Shupa, Shur'. Fl. Per.: May. Fr. Per.: October; Distribution: S.W. Europe, Caucasus, Iran, Arabia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, N. W. & W. Himalaya, Nepal.


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