40. Euphorbia maddenii Boiss. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 141. 1862. Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 263. 1887; Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kasha. 450. 1972.
An ascending or erect glabrous annual or sometimes perennating herb upto 30 cm tall, but more commonly 10-20 cm tall, often becoming much-branched from the base. Stern-leaves alternate, sessile; leaf-blades obovate-spathulate to oblanceolate, 0.5-3.7 x 0.2-1 cm, obtuse, rounded or retuse at the apex, tapered to the base, entire, palminerved. Pseudumbel 3 (-5)-rayed, the rays 4-5 times bifrd, sometimes with a few axillary rays below the pseudumbel; pseudumbel-leaves 3 (-5), whorled, usually resembling the upper stem-leaves but often somewhat broader; ray-leaves opposite, somewhat obliquely ovate, elliptic-ovate, ovate-oblong, triangular-ovate or suborbicular, occasionally falcate, obtuse or rounded at the apex, cuneate, rounded or truncate at the base, entire, progressively smaller distally. Cyathia shortly pedunculate. Glands semilunar, truncate on the outer edge and with 2 slender horns in length equalling the width of the gland; glands greenish at first, later brownish, horns pale straw-coloured. Fruit roundly trilobate, 2.5 x 2.5-3 mm, smooth, pale green. Styles spreading, united at the base, 0.7 mm long, bifrd. Seeds ovoid, 2 x 1.25 mm, roundly hexagonal, longitudinally sulcate and obscurely malleate-rugulose on each facet, pale grey or whitish, with an obliquely-set hemispherical white caruncle.
Fl. Per.: Apr. - Jun. Fr. Per.: (May -) Jun. - Sept.
Holotype: India, Uttar Pradesh, Kumaon, Naini Tat, E. Madden 25 (K); Paratypes: Himachal Pradesh, Mahasu, Simla, M.P. Edgeworth 148 (K); Uttar Pradesh, Kumaon, Naini Tal, R. Strachey & J.E. Winterbottom 15 (K); April 1844, T. Thomson 572 (K).
Distribution: N.W. India (Chamba, Simla, Mahasu, Jaunsar, Tehri Garhwal, Kumaon). On clay loam in cornfields, on dry hillsides, earthy cliffs, in thin forest and by forest paths; (5000'/1524 m. -) 7000'/2137 m. -10,000'/3050 m.