Gentianella umbellata (M.Bieb.) Holub
Annual-biennial, 10-35 cm high, erect, herb. Stem glabrous, shiny, smooth. Branched from base with 1-few erect, upright branches. Basal leaves rosulate, 0.8-2.5 x 0.5-1.2 cm, obovate-oblanceolate or lanceolate or spathulate, entire, obtuse, cauline leaves 0.8-2.5 x 0.4-1.8 cm, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, acute (in our specimen), two terminal enveloping the flowers. Inflorescence terminal or axillary cyme. Flowers pentamerous, 0.8-1.2(-1.5) cm long. Calyx 0.4-1.0 cm long, divided almost to the base, tube 1/3 the length of the lobes, very unequal, the longer somewhat linear , 0.3-0.6 x 0.05-0.10 cm, acuminate, entire, surface wrinkled, broader lance shaped, 0.2-0.4 x 0.1-0.2 cm, acuminate, slightly scabrid margin, sinuses obtuse, broad, mid-vein of lobes up to base. Corolla mauve, blue, purple, pink or mixture of these, campanulate, 0.5-1.5 cm long, tube 0.4-0.8 cm long, lobes 0.2-0.6 x 0.1-0.4 cm, ovate-lanceolate or oblanceolate, mucronate. Stamens 5, filaments inserted deep into the corolla tube, 0.1-0.5 cm long, anthers versatile, 2-lobed, oval-elliptic. Nectaries epipetalous, one each opposing the lobe. Ovary 0.4-0.7 x 0.1-0.3 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, stipitate, style absent, stigma very small, but prominent. Seeds minute, brown, oval-round, reticulate.
Fl. Per.: July-August.
Holotype: Habitat in ditionis Caucasi kubensis alpestribus circa Chinalug (LE, Iso-K!?).
A-6 Chitral: Vedinkot, W. of Baroghil pass, 10000 ft., 22.7.1958, Stainton 2967 (BM, E), A-7 Gilgit: Hispar village area, Nagar State, 10600 ft., 20.8.1960, Polunin 6345 (E), B-8 Baltistan: Shyok watershed, ± 9000 ft., 16.8.1940, R.R. Stewart s.n. (RAW), Thalle La, 10000 ft., 13.8.1940, R.R. Stewart 20627 p.p. (RAW), Kashmir: Matayan, 10500 ft., August 1928, R.R. Stewart 9965 (K), Ladakh: Panichar, 500 m, W. of Suru and Chalang rivers, 1980, Southampton University 34 (K), C-7 Kurram: Shendtoi, 9-10000 ft., 27.8.1879, Aitchison 1003 (BM, K).
Distribution: Soviet Central Asia, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan.
An Irano-Turanian element. In Pakistan, it is restricted to Chitral, Baltistan and Kurram valley.
On damp grounds, among bushes and trees at an elevation of 9-11000 ft.
Closely allied to Aloitis aurea (L.) Love & Love and Aloitis stoliczkae (Clarke) Omer et al. The distribution of Aloitis aurea (L.) Love & Love does not extend eastwards into Asia (S.W.). In fact, it only occurs in the european parts. It differs from Aloitis stoliczkae (Clarke) Omer et al., on the basis of obtuse rounded bases of basal leaves, dissimilar scabrid calyx teeth and obtuse sinuses wh ereas in Aloitis stoliczkae (Clarke) Omer et al., the basal leaves apices are acute, shape of calyx teeth almost similar, densely scabrid and sinuses are acute. The corolla in Aloitis aurea (L.) Love & Love is 6-8 mm long, wh ereas it is 8-11 mm in Aloitis umbellate (M.Bieb.) Omer et al.