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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 12 | Malvaceae

8. Abutilon Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. 1754.

苘麻属 qing ma shu

Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, or small trees. Stipules usually caducous; leaf blade usually entire (lobed in A. pictum), palmately veined, base cordate, margin crenate or serrate. Flowers axillary or subterminal, solitary, paired or in small cymes, often aggregated into terminal panicles. Epicalyx absent. Calyx campanulate, lobes 5. Corolla mostly yellow or orange (red in A. roseum), often with dark center, campanulate to wheel-shaped, rarely ± tubular (A. pictum); petals 5, basally connate and adnate to filament tube. Anthers many, clustered at filament tube apex. Ovary (5-)7-20-loculed; ovules 2-9 per carpel; style branches as many as carpels. Fruit a schizocarp, often blackish when mature, subglobose to hemispherical; mericarps (5-)7-20, eventually dehiscent, apex rounded or acute, sometimes 2-awned, pericarp leathery. Seeds reniform, glabrous or slightly pubescent.

About 200 species: mostly in tropics and subtropics; nine species (three endemic, one introduced) in China.

Several species have become widespread tropical weeds. One species, Abutilon pictum, is widely grown as an ornamental. Paul (Fl. India 3: 269-270. 1993) indicates that A. persicum (N. L. Burman) Merrill occurs in China but we have seen no material or other records. If this species should be found, it would be distinguished by the 5-loculed ovary and gland-tipped hairs on the stems.

1 Leaf blade palmately deeply 3-5-lobed; pedicel 7-10 cm, very slender, pendulous from near base, glabrous; corolla orange with prominent darker veins.   4 A. pictum
+ Leaf blade orbicular-ovate or orbicular-cordate, at the most obscurely 3-cuspidate near apex; pedicel 1-7 cm, robust, often curved, hairy; corolla red, orange, or yellow, without darker veins, center sometimes purple-red   (2)
2 (1) Styles and mericarps 14-25; petals 0.6-1.8 cm   (3)
+ Styles and mericarps (5-)7-10; petals (1.5-)2.5-6 cm   (6)
3 (2) Mericarp apex prominently 2-awned, awns 3-5 mm, usually spreading.   7 A. theophrasti
+ Mericarp apex acute or obscurely awned, awns to 2 mm   (4)
4 (3) Stems, petioles, and pedicels with 3 hair types: long simple hairs, minute stellate hairs, and short gland-tipped hairs; pedicel shorter than petiole; petals orange with purple bases; mericarps 20-25.   6 A. hirtum
+ Stems, petioles, and pedicels with 1 or 2 hair types: stellate hairs, sometimes mixed with a few long simple hairs; pedicel 1-2 × as long as petiole; petals uniformly yellow or orange; mericarps 14-20   (5)
5 (4) Calyx shorter than schizocarp, lobes 3-4 × 3-4 mm, finally spreading; leaf blade abaxially stellate velvety.   8 A. indicum
+ Calyx ca. as long as schizocarp, lobes 5-10 × 5-6 mm, usually appressed; leaf blade abaxially stellate pubescent.   9 A. guineense
6 (2) Petals 1.5-1.7 cm; calyx lobes ovate, 0.7-1 cm; flowers in an open, conical, terminal panicle.   5 A. paniculatum
+ Petals 2.5-6 cm; calyx lobes lanceolate, 1.5-4 cm; flowers axillary or in an irregular congested panicle   (7)
7 (7) Mericarps 5, apices erect, long-acute; stems with gland-tipped hairs. ------ A. persicum   (7)
+ Mericarps 7-10, apices ± spreading, more abruptly contracted into awn; stems not glandular   (8)
8 (7) Styles and mericarps 7; petals red or pink, 2.5-2.8 cm, adaxially stellate hairy.   1 A. roseum
+ Styles and mericarps 8-10; petals mostly yellow or orange, sometimes with purple-red bases, 3.5-6 cm, adaxially glabrous   (9)
9 (8) Leaf margin coarsely dentate or minutely crenate, adaxially sparsely stellate strigose and with long hairs; pedicel 3-5 cm; corolla yellow, often with purple-red center.   2 A. sinense
+ Leaf margin irregularly crenate, adaxially densely tomentose; pedicel 1-2 cm; corolla uniformly orange.   3 A. gebauerianum

  • List of lower taxa


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