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Pakistan | Family List | Malvaceae

Abutilon Mill., Gard. Dict. Abridg. ed. 4.1. 1754. Boiss., Fl.Or.l:835. 1867; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1:335. 1874; Borss. in Blumea 14(1): 159. 1966; Hutch., Gen. Fl. Pl. 1:554. 1967.

Perennial herbs to shrubs, rarely small trees (not in Pakistan) covered with stellate hairs, sometimes mixed with simple hairs. Leaves petiolate, stipulate, ovate or cordate, toothed, angled or lobed. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary or in terminal racemes or panicles by the reduction of leaves. Expicalyx absent. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla yellow to orange-yellow. Staminal column divided at the apex into many filaments, included. Carpels 5-many loculed, each locule 2-9 ovuled; stigmas capitellate-capitate; style branches as many as carpels, filiform-clavate. Fruit subglobose, truncate or cylindric, dehiscent schizocarp; mericarps acute to acuminate or obtuse, 2-9 seeded Seeds ± reniform glabrous or hairy.

A genus with about 150 species distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both the hemispheres. It is represented by 18 specific and intraspecific taxa in Pakistan.

Doubtful species

Abutilon persicum (Burm. f.) Merr. has been recorded from N.W. Province (Masters 1874) and from Sind (Blatter et al 1929). Presently no specimen of this species is traceable and its occurrence seems to be doubtful.

1 Carpels 8-12   (2)
+ Carpels more than 12   (5)
2 (1) Fruit cylindric, less than 1 cm long   (3)
+ Fruit ovoid, more than 1 cm long   (4)
3 (2) Carpels beaked; leaves glabrescent   Abutilon ramosum
+ Carpels hardly beaked, truncate; leaves hoary   Abutilon fruticosum
4 (2) Plant with long spreading hairs on branches, petioles and pedicels. Sepals 1.5-2 cm long, 1-1.5 cm broad, larger than fruit   Abutilon grandifolium
+ Plant with appressed hairs. Sepals c. 1 cm long, 4-6 mm broad, smaller than fruit   Abutilon pakistanicum
5 (1) Carpels truncate or/and with a distinct mucro   (6)
+ Carpels obtuse   (13)
6 (5) Sepals leathery, exceeding the fruit. Fruit not differentiated into ridges and furrows (finely truncate)   Abutilon sepalum
+ Sepals not leathery, not exceeding the fruit. Fruit differentiated into ridges and furrows   (7)
7 (6) Mericarps with 2 long ultimately horizontally spreading 3-5 mm long awns. Leaf margins minutely toothed. Staminal tube glabrous   Abutilon theophrasti
+ Mericarps with 1 mm long awns. Leaf margins prominently toothed. Staminal tube stellate hairy   (8)
8 (7) Flowers pale yellow, 1-1.5 cm across. Mericarps gradually acuminate   Abutilon bidentatum
+ Flowers yellow to orange-yellow, 2.5 cm or more across. Mericarps acute or with a small mucro   (9)
9 (8) Stipules lanceolate. Branches, petioles and pedicels with dense, spreading and clammy hairs   (10)
+ Stipules linear. Hairs mostly appressed, not clammy   (11)
10 (9) Branches and leaves white tomentose and velutinous. Mericarps 15-20, somewhat obtuse. Fruit usually subglobose, with c. 10 mm long calyx. (Entire plant velvety and with short spreading hairs)   Abutilon figarianum
+ Branches and leaves yellowish tomentose and scabrulous (at least on the older parts) Mericarps 20-30, with a small mucro. Fruit truncate, with 10-13 mm long calyx. (Entire plant hispidulous, and with long, spreading hairs)   Abutilon hirtum
11 (9) Fruit with ridges and furrows towards the apex only, mericarps more than 20, with a small mucro, 7-10 mm long, 5-6 mm broad   Abutilon karachianum
+ Fruit with deep ridges and furrows all over; mericarps 15-20, acute or somewhat acuminate, 10-18 mm long, 7-8 mm broad (dehiscent before breaking away from the central axis)   (12)
12 (11) Mericarps remain erect at maturity, dehiscent after breaking away from the central axis. Short spreading hairs present at least on young parts   Abutilon indicum
+ Mericarps, spreading stellately at maturity, dehiscent before breaking away from the central axis. Spreading hairs lacking, only present at the top of the petiole   Abutilon ghafoorianum
13 (5) Mericarps 28-39, each 2-seeded (or 1 by abortion). Leaf scabrous above, stipules linear. Flowers axillary, solitary or in fascicles of 2-4, Petals ± twice the length of calyx. Fruiting calyx 7-10 mm long   Abutilon muticum
+ Mericarps 23-31, each 3-seeded. Leaf almost velvety above, stipules lanceolate. Flowers in pseudoraceme or panicle. Petals 2.5-3 times the length of calyx. Fruiting calyx 10-17 mm long   (14)
14 (13) Fruit stalk 1-8 cm long, articulate lower part (of the stalk below the articulation) somewhat thinner, less hairy and 4-25 times longer than the upper. Fruiting calyx 12-17 mm long, usually larger than fruit, inner surface with short and long hairs. Fruit densely covered with short and long hairs, ridges and furrows less conspicuous   Abutilon alii
+ Fruit stalk 1-3.5 cm long, articulate, uniformly hairy and thick all over except the joint, lower part shorter-4 times longer than the upper. Fruiting calyx 10-12 mm long, smaller than the mature fruit, inner surface with hairs of uniform length. Fruit with hairs of uniform length, ridges and furrows conspicuous   Abutilon pannosum

  • List of lower taxa


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