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13. Lardizabalaceae Decaisne

木通科 mu tong ke

Authors: Dezhao Chen & Tatemi Shimizu

Holboellia latifolia

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Woody climbers, rarely erect shrubs (Decaisnea). Monoecious, rarely dioecious. Stems climbing or twining (erect in Decaisnea); wood with broad medullary rays. Winter buds large; outer scales 2 to numerous; scales subtending leaves persistent, scaly. Stipules usually absent (present and very small in Sinofranchetia). Leaves alternate, palmate or 3-foliolate, rarely pinnate (Decaisnea). Petiole and petiolules swollen at both ends, articulate. Flowers functionally unisexual by reduction or abortion, actinomorphic. Sepals 6 (usually 3 in Akebia), petaloid, in 2 whorls, imbricate or outer 3 valvate. Petals 6, nectariferous, much smaller than sepals or absent. Male flowers: stamens free or ± connate into a tube; anthers 2-celled, extrorsely dehiscent by longitudinal slit; connective apical appendage hornlike or apiculate, sometimes unappendaged. Pistillodes 3--6(--9), small, filiform. Female flowers: staminodes 6. Carpels 3(--9) or numerous (Sargentodoxa), superior, free; ovules numerous, orthotropous or anatropous, in 2 to several longitudinal rows on laminar placenta, rarely 1, pendulous, hemitropous to subanatropous (Sargentodoxa). Stigma conspicuous, sessile or subsessile. Fruit fleshy follicles or baccate, indehiscent or dehiscent along abaxial suture. Seeds numerous, rarely solitary; seed coat crustaceous; endosperm copious; embryo small, straight.

Nine genera and ca. 50 species: mainly in E Asia, two monotypic genera in S America; seven genera (two endemic) and 37 species (25 endemic) in China.

Chen Te-chao. 2001. Lardizabalaceae. In: Ying Tsun-shen, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 29: 1–50.


1 Stems erect; leaves odd pinnate with 13--25 leaflets; inflorescences terminal; winter bud outer scales 2   1 Decaisnea
+ Stems climbing or twining; leaves palmate or (1 or)3--9-foliolate; inflorescences axillary; winter bud outer scales numerous.   (2)
       
2 (1) Leaves (1 or)3-foliolate; lateral leaflets asymmetric.   (3)
+ Leaves palmately compound, (3--)5--9-foliolate; lateral leaflets base mostly symmetric.   (4)
       
3 (2) Stem without red sap when cut; lateral leaflets slightly asymmetric at base, smaller than terminal leaflet; carpels 3 in female flowers, ovules ca. 20 per carpel; mature carpels 1--3 at each node of infructescence   6 Sinofranchetia
+ Stems with red sap when cut; lateral leaflets extremely asymmetric on one side, larger than terminal leaflet; carpels numerous in female flowers; ovules 1 per carpel; mature carpels 20--40 spirally arranged on an enlarged receptacle   7 Sargentodoxa
       
4 (2) Leaflet apex rounded to obtuse and emarginate; filaments very short; anthers incurved; fruit dehiscent.   (5)
+ Leaflet apex usually acuminate or caudate; filaments conspicuous; anthers straight; fruit indehiscent.   (6)
       
5 (4) Sepals 3(--6); female flowers much larger than male flowers and different in shape   2 Akebia
+ Sepals 6; female flowers slightly larger than male flowers and similar in shape   3 Archakebia
       
6 (4) Petals 6, small; filaments free   4 Holboellia
+ Petals 6 or usually absent; filaments connate   5 Stauntonia

Lower Taxa


 

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