All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 17 Page 4 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 17 | Verbenaceae

6. Callicarpa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 111. 1753.

紫珠属 zi zhu shu

Shrubs or trees, erect or rarely climbing; hairs stellate, verticillately branched, dendritic, mealy tomentose, or rarely simple and hooked. Branchlets terete or 4-angled. Leaves opposite or in 3s. Cymes axillary, sessile or pedunculate; bracts linear. Calyx campanulate, truncate or minutely 4-dentate, unaltered in fruit. Corolla actinomorphic, campanulate or tubular, lobes 4. Stamens 4, inserted on corolla tube; filaments slender, often exserted; anthers ovate or oblong, dehiscing by longitudinal slits or circular pores. Ovary imperfectly 2-locular; ovules 2 per locule, attached to middle or distal part of ovary. Style usually longer than stamens; stigma usually dilated. Fruit a small globose drupe, endocarp bony, mesocarp fleshy, exocarp thin. Seeds small, oblong; seed coat membranous; cotyledons fleshy.

About 140 species: mainly in tropical and subtropical Asia, few in tropical America and Africa, and very few in temperate Asia and North America; 48 species in China.

1 Plants glabrous except stems with short strongly antrorsely curved hairs   48 Callicarpa peichieniana
+ Plants with stellate, whorled, dendritic, or erect simple hairs.   (2)
2 (1) Calyx tubular, longer than fruit, deeply dentate   1 Callicarpa kochiana
+ Calyx cup-shaped or campanulate, shorter than fruit, truncate, subtruncate, or short dentate.   (3)
3 (2) Filaments shorter than corolla, rarely equaling or longer than corolla; anthers oblong, opening by an apical pore.   (4)
+ Filaments usually 2 or more as long as corolla (except in C. pauciflora); anthers rounded, ovate, or elliptic, opening by longitudinal slits.   (16)
4 (3) Leaves and flowers densely red or dark red glandular.   (5)
+ Leaves and flowers yellow glandular or eglandular.   (6)
5 (4) Leaf blade abaxially with stellate hairs along veins; calyx subglabrous; corolla white; filaments shorter than corolla tube   36 Callicarpa dentosa
+ Leaf blade abaxially subglabrous; calyx with stellate hairs; corolla purple; filaments equal to corolla tube or slightly exserted   35 Callicarpa cathayana
6 (4) Leaf blade abaxially pubescent with stellate hairs.   (7)
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or subglabrous.   (10)
7 (6) Corolla ca. 3 mm   37 Callicarpa collina
+ Corolla more than 3 mm.   (8)
8 (7) Calyces, corollas, and ovaries pubescent; fruit pubescent at maturity; leaf blade abaxially with only stellate hairs   38 Callicarpa tingwuensis
+ Calyces, corollas, and ovaries glabrous or subglabrous; fruit glabrous at maturity; leaf blade abaxially pubescent to sparsely pubescent along midvein only, with some hairs simple.   (9)
9 (8) Leaf blade margin serrate; calyx teeth obtusely triangular   39 Callicarpa randaiensis
+ Leaf blade margin subentire to sparsely serrulate towards apex; calyx teeth minute or absent   40 Callicarpa brevipes
10 (6) Cymes 2- or 3-flowered; fruiting pedicel more than 4 mm   47 Callicarpa oligantha
+ Cymes more than 3-flowered; fruiting pedicel 1-3 mm.   (11)
11 (10) Leaf blade base subcordate; petiole very short to leaf subsessile   46 Callicarpa lingii
+ Leaf blade base cuneate or obtuse; petiole 0.5-1.5 cm.   (12)
12 (11) Leaf blade subleathery; peduncle ca. 2 or more as long as petioles   41 Callicarpa remotiserrulata
+ Leaf blade papery or membranous, rarely subleathery; peduncle shorter to slightly longer than petioles.   (13)
13 (12) Leaf blade membranous, adaxially pubescent   45 Callicarpa anisophylla
+ Leaf blade papery or rarely subleathery, adaxially glabrous.   (14)
14 (13) Petiole less than 5 mm; cymes many flowered; fruit ca. 3 mm in diam.   44 Callicarpa kwangtungensis
+ Petiole 6-20 mm; cymes few flowered; fruit ca. 2.5 mm in diam.   (15)
15 (14) Leaf blade obovate, ovate, or elliptic; peduncle 6-10 mm; calyx obtusely triangular   42 Callicarpa japonica
+ Leaf blade oblanceolate to lanceolate; peduncle less than 6 mm; calyx subtruncate   43 Callicarpa membranacea
16 (3) Peduncle robust, usually over 3 cm (except C. hypoleucophylla, C. macrophylla, and C. minutiflora).   (17)
+ Peduncle slender, less than 3 cm.   (25)
17 (16) Leaf blade margin entire; trees or climbing shrubs.   (18)
+ Leaf blade margin serrulate or serrate (sometimes undulate or subentire in C. nudiflora); shrubs or rarely small trees.   (20)
18 (17) Climbing shrubs; peduncle terete; uppermost leaves very reduced so that cymes form a terminal panicle   4 Callicarpa integerrima
+ Erect trees; peduncle 4-angled; uppermost leaves not or only slightly reduced so that cymes are clearly axillary.   (19)
19 (18) Leaf blade leathery, without glands; pedicel ca. 1.5 mm   2 Callicarpa arborea
+ Leaf blade papery, red-brown glandular; pedicel ca. 3 mm   3 Callicarpa yunnanensis
20 (17) Leaf blade without glands.   (21)
+ Leaf blade yellow glandular.   (23)
21 (20) Ovary puberulent; peduncle 2-3 cm   7 Callicarpa macrophylla
+ Ovary glabrous; peduncle 3-8 cm.   (22)
22 (21) Calyx and corolla pubescent; calyx teeth ca. 1 mm; bracts lanceolate, 3-4 1 cm   5 Callicarpa longibracteata
+ Calyx and corolla glabrous; calyx truncate or minutely 4-dentate; bracts lanceolate-linear, smaller   6 Callicarpa nudiflora
23 (20) Calyx outside glabrous   8 Callicarpa acutifolia
+ Calyx outside densely stellate pubescent.   (24)
24 (23) Corolla 2-2.5 mm; leaf blade elliptic, abaxially yellowish green   10 Callicarpa minutiflora
+ Corolla ca. 1.5 cm; leaf blade lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, abaxially gray to whitish   11 Callicarpa hypoleucophylla
25 (16) Leaf blade base cordate to truncate.   (26)
+ Leaf blade base cuneate, obtuse, or rounded.   (28)
26 (25) Stems covered with predominantly long simple hairs; calyx teeth 1-2 mm; petiole 5-8 mm   32 Callicarpa longipes
+ Stems densely covered with stellate hairs; calyx teeth less than 0.5 mm; leaves subsessile or very short petiolate.   (27)
27 (26) Leaf blade margin very shallowly crenulate; calyx teeth obsolete; corolla white, very minutely papillate   33 Callicarpa basitruncata
+ Leaf blade margin serrate; calyx teeth acute; corolla reddish, pilose   34 Callicarpa rubella
28 (25) Leaf blade woolly-velvety, tomentose, or silky on both surfaces but especially abaxially.   (29)
+ Leaf blade abaxially sparsely hairy with stellate or simple hairs or sometimes glabrous.   (32)
29 (28) Calyx dentate, teeth 0.3-1 mm; branchlets densely covered with yellow-brown dendritic hairs   9 Callicarpa loboapiculata
+ Calyx truncate or minutely dentate, teeth less than 0.3 mm; branchlets short velvety.   (30)
30 (29) Leaf blade abaxially with silky hairs; branchlet nodes with a transverse scar   14 Callicarpa poilanei
+ Leaf blade abaxially with stellate velvety hairs; branchlet nodes without a transverse scar.   (31)
31 (30) Leaf blade 8-20 4-8 cm, margin densely serrate; cymes many flowered; calyx densely velvety   12 Callicarpa candicans
+ Leaf blade 3-6 2-3 cm, margin sparsely serrulate or entire; cymes few flowered; calyx sparsely pilose   13 Callicarpa gracilipes
32 (28) Leaves and flowers usually with red, dark red, or dark purple glands.   (33)
+ Leaves and flowers usually with yellow glands.   (36)
33 (32) Leaf blade abaxially with uniformly stellate hairs to subglabrous   28 Callicarpa bodinieri
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or with sparse stellate pubescence only along midvein.   (34)
34 (33) Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, base broadly cuneate to subrounded, abaxially dark purple glandular   29 Callicarpa salicifolia
+ Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or ovate-oblong, base cuneate, abaxially red-brown glandular.   (35)
35 (34) Cymes ca. 1 cm across; fruit ca. 2 mm in diam.; fruiting calyx not thick   30 Callicarpa erythrosticta
+ Cymes ca. 2 cm across; fruit ca. 3 mm in diam.; fruiting calyx thick   31 Callicarpa hungtaii
36 (32) Branchlets, leaf abaxial surfaces, and cymes with yellow-brown simple hairs   27 Callicarpa pilosissima
+ Branchlets, leaf abaxial surfaces, and cymes with stellate or branched hairs or glabrous.   (37)
37 (36) Calyx pubescent; leaf blade abaxially with stellate hairs.   (38)
+ Calyx usually glabrous; leaf blade abaxially glabrous or sparsely stellate pubescent only on veins.   (42)
38 (37) Calyx truncate to minutely dentate; fruit stellate pubescent when mature; branchlets 4-angled, nodes with a transverse scar   19 Callicarpa longifolia
+ Calyx teeth triangular, less than 1.5 mm; fruit glabrous when mature; branchlets terete, nodes without a transverse scar.   (39)
39 (38) Ovary glabrous; peduncle longer than petioles.   (40)
+ Ovary pubescent; peduncle shorter than or equal to petioles.   (41)
40 (39) Petiole 5-25 mm; leaf blade adaxially minutely hispid and scabrous, base obtuse to rounded; cymes many flowered; peduncle 1.5-2.5 cm; corolla glabrous   15 Callicarpa formosana
+ Petiole 3-5 mm; leaf blade adaxially sparsely pilose, base cuneate to broadly cuneate; cymes few flowered; peduncle 0.8-1 cm; corolla puberulent   16 Callicarpa pseudorubella
41 (39) Calyx teeth 1-1.5 mm   17 Callicarpa pauciflora
+ Calyx teeth less than 0.5 mm   18 Callicarpa giraldii
42 (37) Cymes with leafy branchlets growing out from them.   (43)
+ Cymes without leafy branchlets growing out from them.   (44)
43 (42) Leaf blade lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or ovate, margin slightly sinuate, serrate, serrulate, or entire; corolla tube ca. 2 mm   20 Callicarpa prolifera
+ Leaf blade elliptic to oblong-elliptic, margin distinctly triangular-serrulate; corolla tube ca. 4 mm   21 Callicarpa pingshanensis
44 (42) Branchlets 4-angled, with sparse simple hairs, nodes with a ring of hairs or transverse scar   22 Callicarpa longissima
+ Branchlets terete, with stellate hairs or subglabrous, nodes without a ring of hairs or transverse scar.   (45)
45 (44) Peduncle 4-7 mm, shorter than petioles; fruit ca. 1 mm in diam.   23 Callicarpa luteopunctata
+ Peduncle 8-20 mm, longer than petioles; fruit 1-4 mm in diam.   (46)
46 (45) Leaf blade 2-6(-10) cm, obovate to lanceolate, margin apically coarsely dentate   24 Callicarpa dichotoma
+ Leaf blade 10-15 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, elliptic, or ovate-elliptic, margin serrate to subentire.   (47)
47 (46) Petiole less than 1 cm; leaf blade abaxially stellate tomentose on veins, margin serrate; peduncle 2 as long as petioles   25 Callicarpa kotoensis
+ Petiole 1.5-2 cm; leaf blade abaxially glabrous, margin subserrate to subentire; peduncle as long as petioles   26 Callicarpa siongsaiensis

  • List of lower taxa


    Related Objects  
  • PDF File
  • PDF

  • Flora of China @
    Browse by
    Advanced Search

    Flora of China Home




     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |