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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 8 | Brassicaceae

43. Cardamine Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 654. 1753.

碎米荠属 sui mi ji shu

Cardamine macrophylla

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Dentaria Linnaeus; Loxostemon J. D. Hooker & Thomson; Sphaerotorrhiza (O. E. Schulz) Khokhrjakov.

Herbs annual, biennial, or rhizomatous or tuberous perennial. Trichomes absent or simple. Stems erect or prostrate, leafy or rarely leafless and plant scapose. Basal leaves petiolate, rosulate or not, simple and entire, toothed, or 1-3-pinnatisect, or palmately lobed, sometimes trifoliolate, pinnately, palmately, or bipinnately compound. Cauline leaves alternate, (rarely opposite or whorled), simple or compound as basal leaves, petiolate or sessile and base cuneate, attenuate, auriculate, or sagittate, margin entire, dentate, or variously lobed. Racemes ebracteate or rarely bracteate throughout or only basally, corymbose or in panicles, elongated in fruit. Fruiting pedicels slender or thickened, erect, divaricate, or reflexed. Sepals ovate or oblong, base of lateral pair saccate or not, margin often membranous. Petals white, pink, purple, or violet, never yellow, rarely absent; blade obovate, spatulate, oblong, or oblanceolate, apex obtuse or emarginate; claw absent or strongly differentiated from blade, longer or shorter than sepals. Stamens 6 and tetradynamous, rarely 4 and equal in length; anthers ovate, oblong, or linear, obtuse at apex. Nectar glands confluent and subtending bases of all stamens; median glands 2 or rarely 4 or absent; lateral glands annular or semiannular. Ovules 4-50 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques, linear or rarely narrowly oblong or narrowly lanceolate, latiseptate, sessile; valves papery, not veined, glabrous (or very rarely hairy), smooth or torulose, dehiscing elastically acropetally, spirally or circinately coiled; replum strongly flattened; septum complete, membranous, translucent; style distinct or rarely obsolete; stigma capitate, entire. Seeds uniseriate, wingless, rarely margined or winged, oblong or ovate, flattened; seed coat smooth, minutely reticulate, colliculate, or rugose; mucilaginous or not when wetted; cotyledons accumbent or very rarely incumbent.

About 200 species: worldwide; 48 species (24 endemic, one introduced) in China.

1 Racemes bracteate throughout, very lax   38 C. lihengiana
+ Racemes ebracteate, corymbose.   (2)
2 (1) Flowering stems leafless; all leaves basal.   (3)
+ Flowering stems leafy; at least some leaves cauline.   (5)
3 (2) Rhizomal leaves trifoliolate, leaflets ovate, 7-18 × 4-5 cm; petals 1.5-1.7 cm   4 C. cheotaiyienii
+ Rhizomal leaves simple, suborbicular or broadly reniform; rarely to 2 × 3 cm; petals less than 1.5 cm.   (4)
4 (3) Petals (8-)9-13 mm; fruiting pedicels 1-4 cm; leaf blade reniform or suborbicular   13 C. scaposa
+ Petals 3-3.5 mm; fruiting pedicels 0.2-0.7 cm; leaf blade ovate, subcordate, or oblong   42 C. changbaiana
5 (2) Cauline leaves auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul at base, sometimes petiole absent and proximal pair of leaflets attached directly to or a little above node.   (6)
+ Cauline leaves not auriculate, sagittate, nor amplexicaul, proximal leaflets or leaf lobes attached to a distinct petiole well above the node.   (22)
6 (5) Blade of cauline leaves sessile, rachis and petiole absent; petals 10-17 mm   8 C. violacea
+ Blade of cauline leaves on a distinct petiole or rachis; petals 3-9(-10) mm.   (7)
7 (6) Petiole ± absent; proximal pair of lateral leaflets auriclelike, attached to rachis at or a little above node, often giving appearance of amplexicaul leaf base.   (8)
+ Petiole distinct; proximal pair of leaflets not auriclelike, attached well above node.   (14)
8 (7) Cauline leaves pinnatisect; rhizomes, stolons, stem base, and petiole of basal leaves densely crisped pilose; basal leaves orbicular   12 C. fargesiana
+ Cauline leaves trifoliolate or pinnately compound; rhizomes, stolons, stem base, and petioles of basal leaves glabrous or some of them sparsely pilose; basal leaves variously-shaped.   (9)
9 (8) Cauline leaves trifoliolate; lateral leaflets 1 pair   31 C. engleriana
+ Cauline leaves pinnately compound or pinnatisect; lateral leaflets or leaf lobes 2 or more pairs.   (10)
10 (9) Plants with long stolons bearing simple leaves; seeds broadly winged; petals white   29 C. lyrata
+ Plants without stolons and simple leaves; seeds wingless; flowers purple or lavender, if white then plants pilose at least basally.   (11)
11 (10) Lateral leaflets 2-4(or 5) pairs; plants erect, pilose basally or along leaf margin.   (12)
+ Lateral leaflets (6-)7-15 pairs; plants often creeping, glabrous.   (13)
12 (11) Cauline leaves 2-5(-7); plants (7-)10-25(-35) cm tall; petals white; stigma entire   30 C. hygrophila
+ Cauline leaves (9-)12-28(-37); plants (20-)30-100(-115) cm tall; petals purple or lavender; stigma 2-lobed   28 C. griffithii
13 (11) Lateral leaflets ovate to ovate-oblong, entire or repand, base obtuse; seeds wingless; style 2-4 mm; sepals 2.5-3 mm   27 C. multijuga
+ Lateral leaflets linear or narrowly oblong, proximal margin 1- or 2(or 3)-toothed, base oblique; seeds winged; style 4-6 mm; sepals 3-4 mm   26 C. gracilis
14 (7) Petiole broadly winged at least along proximal half.   (15)
+ Petiole wingless.   (17)
15 (14) Blade of cauline leaves not lobed; petals 3-4 mm; Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning [Korea]   32 C. komarovii
+ Blade of cauline leaves 3-lobed or pinnatisect; petals 5-8 mm; Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan.   (16)
16 (15) Blade of cauline leaves trilobed, terminal lobe ovate to ovate-lanceolate; petals purple; racemes simple   6 C. bodinieri
+ Blade of cauline leaves pinnatisect, terminal lobe obovate to obovate-oblong; petals white; racemes in panicles   7 C. multiflora
17 (14) Leaves simple, rarely a few trifoliolate.   (18)
+ All leaves pinnatisect, trifid, trifoliolate, or pinnately compound.   (19)
18 (17) Blade of basal leaves not fleshy, ovate, cordate, or rarely suborbicular, longer than wide; petals white, (4-)5-7(-8) mm   33 C. circaeoides
+ Blade of basal leaves fleshy, reniform, much wider than long; petals violet, deep magenta, or rarely lavender or white, 7-10 mm   34 C. calthifolia
19 (17) Cauline leaves trifid or pinnatisect, with all lobes decurrent; rhizomes fleshy, often with bulbils   17 C. repens
+ Cauline leaves compound, with 3-11 pairs of nondecurrent leaflets; rhizomes not fleshy, without bulbils.   (20)
20 (19) Cauline leaves (9-)13-23-foliolate   41 C. impatiens
+ Cauline leaves 3-7-foliolate.   (21)
21 (20) Plants 3-10 cm tall; cauline leaves with petiole 0.4-1.1 cm, terminal leaflet narrowly oblanceolate or linear, 0.5-1 mm wide; ovaries and fruit valves glabrous   43 C. nipponica
+ Plants (10-)15-45(-60) cm tall; cauline leaves with petiole (1-)2-7(-8.5) cm, terminal leaflet lanceolate, elliptic, oblong, ovate, or suborbicular, (4-)6-20(-30) mm wide; ovaries and fruit valves sparsely pilose   39 C. yunnanensis
22 (5) Cauline leaves simple, rarely obscurely 2- or 3-lobed.   (23)
+ Cauline leaves pinnatisect, deeply trifid, trifoliolate, or pinnately compound.   (24)
23 (22) Cauline leaves reniform, 15-40 mm wide; petals 7-10 mm; sepals 2.5-4 mm   34 C. calthifolia
+ Cauline leaves broadly ovate, subcordate, or oblong, 1.5-8 mm wide; petals 3-3.5 mm; sepals 1.3-1.7 mm   42 C. changbaiana
24 (22) Plants annual or biennial; petals 1.5-5(-6) mm.   (25)
+ Plants perennial, with distinct rhizomes, tubers, bulbils, or stolons; petals (5-)6-18 mm.   (28)
25 (24) Lateral lobes of middle cauline leaves filiform, linear, or narrowly oblong, 0.3-3 mm wide; petals (1.5-)1.8-2.5 mm; fruit 0.6-0.9 mm wide   45 C. parviflora
+ Lateral lobes of middle cauline leaves variously-shaped, wider; petals 2.5-4.5(-6) mm; fruit (0.8-)1-1.5 mm wide.   (26)
26 (25) Fruit and usually fruiting pedicels erect, often appressed to rachis; stamens 4(-6); petioles of basal leaves ciliate   46 C. hirsuta
+ At least pedicels divaricate or ascending, together with fruit not appressed to rachis; stamens (4 or 6); petioles of basal leaves often not ciliate.   (27)
27 (26) Terminal lobe of middle and upper cauline leaves nearly as large as lateral ones; raceme rachis and/or stem often flexuous   47 C. flexuosa
+ Terminal lobe of middle and upper cauline leaves considerably larger than lateral ones; raceme rachis and stem straight   48 C. scutata
28 (24) Rhizomes with bulbils or tubers; stem narrowed basally into a fragile, slender attachment to rhizome.   (29)
+ Rhizomes without bulbils or tubers; stem stout at attachment to rhizome, if slender then at least some leaflets more than 1 cm wide.   (34)
29 (28) Rhizomes with stalked tubers; bulbils absent; rhizomal leaves ternate, biternate, or palmately 5-foliolate; petals 8-11(-14) mm   11 C. trifida
+ Rhizomes with sessile bulbils; tubers absent; rhizomal leaves simple, trifoliolate, or pinnately compound; petals smaller.   (30)
30 (29) Cauline leaves pinnnatisect; terminal lobe filiform, linear, or lanceolate, without petiolule.   (31)
+ Cauline leaves compound; terminal lobe oblong, elliptic, or obovate, petiolulate.   (32)
31 (30) Terminal lobe of cauline leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, decurrent with distal pair of lateral lobes, 4-9 mm wide; petiole winged   17 C. repens
+ Terminal lobe of cauline leaves filiform to narrowly linear, not decurrent with distal pair of lateral lobes, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm wide; petiole slender, wingless   18 C. granulifera
32 (30) Cauline leaves with 1(or 2) pairs of lateral leaflets; axils of cauline leaves with bulbils; filaments of median stamens 0.7-1.1 mm wide, extended into an apical tooth   15 C. pulchella
+ Cauline leaves with (2 or)3-6 pairs of lateral leaflets; axils of cauline leaves without bulbils; filaments of median stamens narrower, toothless.   (33)
33 (32) Terminal leaflet oblong or oblong-elliptic, entire; petals white or rarely lavender, 7-9 mm   14 C. franchetiana
+ Terminal leaflet orbicular, obovate, or oblanceolate, often lobed, trifid, or subapically toothed; petals purple with darker veins, 8-12(-14) mm   19 C. loxostemonoides
34 (28) Terminal leaflet or ultimate segments of upper cauline leaves filiform, linear, linear-lanceolate, or narrowly oblanceolate, to 2 mm wide.   (35)
+ Terminal leaflet of upper cauline leaves variously-shaped but never filiform, linear, linear-lanceolate, or narrowly lanceolate, more than 2 mm wide.   (39)
35 (34) At least some leaf segments bifid or trifid into linear segments   44 C. caroides
+ Leaf segments entire or dentate, never deeply cleft.   (36)
36 (35) Cauline leaves with 4-7(-13) lateral lobes or leaflets on each side of rachis; petals purple or lavender; stems and rachis not flexuous.   (37)
+ Cauline leaves with 1-3 lateral lobes or leaflets on each side of rachis; petals white; stems and rachis flexuous.   (38)
37 (36) Rhizomes stoloniferous; median staminal filaments 4-5 mm; ovules 10-16; fruit to 2.5 cm   24 C. purpurascens
+ Rhizomes not stoloniferous; median staminal filaments 5-10 mm; ovules 20-30; fruit often longer   10 C. pratensis
38 (36) Petals 5-6 mm; fruiting pedicels 8-14 mm, divaricate, recurved   20 C. stenoloba
+ Petals 6.5-9 mm; fruiting pedicels (8-)10-25(-30) mm, erect or ascending, straight   21 C. simplex
39 (34) Cauline leaves with 4-13 lateral leaflets or lobes on each side of rachis.   (40)
+ Cauline leaves with 1-3 lateral leaflets or lobes on each side of rachis.   (43)
40 (39) Terminal leaflet of cauline leaves more than 1 cm; seeds (1.5-)2-3(-4) mm   1 C. macrophylla
+ Terminal leaflet of cauline leaves 0.2-0.8(-1) cm; seeds 1.2-2.1 mm.   (41)
41 (40) Rhizomes thickened, not elongated; lateral leaflets of cauline leaves symmetric, base cuneate; median staminal filaments 5-10 mm   10 C. pratensis
+ Rhizomes slender, elongated; lateral leaflets of cauline leaves strongly asymmetric, base oblique; median staminal filament 3.5-5.   (42)
42 (41) Flowers white; at least some lateral leaflets of lower and middle cauline leaves deeply 3-5-toothed or -lobed along abaxial margin   23 C. rockii
+ Flowers purple or lavender, or white; lateral leaflets entire, repand, or 1(or 2)-toothed along abaxial margin   25 C. microzyga
43 (39) Leaf blade or terminal leaf lobe of rhizomal, basal, and lowermost cauline leaves reniform, suborbicular, orbicular, or rarely broadly cordate, palmately veined.   (44)
+ Leaf blade or terminal leaf lobe of rhizomal, basal, and lowermost cauline leaves oblong, elliptic, obovate, or lanceolate, pinnately veined.   (47)
44 (43) Stems strongly flexuous; terminal leaflet of upper cauline leaves linear or narrowly oblong; fruit valves torulose   16 C. delavayi
+ Stems not flexuous; terminal leaflet of upper cauline leaves obovate, suborbicular, subreniform, or ovate-suborbicular; fruit valves smooth.   (45)
45 (44) Rhizomes not stoloniferous; ovules or seeds 24-30 per fruit; margin of upper leaves or leaflets crenate or repand-crenate   36 C. anhuiensis
+ Rhizomes stoloniferous; ovules or seeds 10-14 per fruit; margin of upper leaves or leaflets entire, repand, dentate, or rarely slightly lobed.   (46)
46 (45) Stems pilose; petals 6-9 mm; sepals 3-4 mm; terminal leaflet of cauline leaves obovate   35 C. calcicola
+ Stems glabrous or puberulent; petals 5-6 mm; sepals 2-2.5 mm; terminal leaflet of cauline leaves suborbicular, reniform, or ovate-suborbicular   37 C. hydrocotyloides
47 (43) Terminal leaf lobe rarely to 1.2 cm, broadly obovate   22 C. trifoliolata
+ Terminal leaf lobe considerably larger, variously-shaped by never broadly obovate.   (48)
48 (47) Cauline leaves trifoliolate, uppermost sometimes simple.   (49)
+ Cauline leaves 5-23-foliolate, rarely uppermost trifoliolate.   (50)
49 (48) Plants (35-)50-100(-130) cm tall; cauline leaves (5-)7-10(-15); petals purple, lavender, pink, or rarely white   5 C. fragariifolia
+ Plants 15-40 cm tall; cauline leaves 1-4; petals white   40 C. paucifolia
50 (48) Rhizomes stoloniferous; petals white; leaflet apex of cauline leaves obtuse   9 C. prorepens
+ Rhizomes not stoloniferous; petals purple or lavender, if white then 6-8 mm; leaflet apex acuminate or acute.   (51)
51 (50) Flowers white; stems flexuous; terminal leaflet of cauline leaves petiolulate, apex caudate-acuminate, acuminate, or rarely acute   3 C. leucantha
+ Flowers deep purple or lavender; stems straight or rarely subflexuous; terminal leaflet of cauline leaves sessile or rarely petiolulate, apex acute or acuminate.   (52)
52 (51) Cauline leaves 1-3(-5); plants (8-)15-30(-40) cm tall; rhizomes sparsely scaly; lateral leaflets of cauline leaves not decurrent   2 C. tangutorum
+ Cauline leaves 3-12(-18); plants (20-)30-95(-115) cm tall; rhizomes usually not scaly; at least the distal pair of lateral leaflets of cauline leaves decurrent at base, rarely all cuneate   1 C. macrophylla

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