西番莲科 xi fan lian ke
Authors: Yinzheng Wang, Shawn E. Krosnick, Peter Møller Jørgensen & David Hearn
Climbing herbs or lianas with axillary tendrils, rarely shrubs or trees, vegetative ramification through a supra-axillary bud. Leaves alternate (rarely subopposite), spirally arranged, simple or rarely compound, stipulate or not, petiolate, petiole or base of blade often with 1 to many glands; leaf blade entire or lobed, venation pinnate or palmate, often with glands on margin and abaxial surface. Inflorescence cymose, axillary, sessile or pedunculate, primary axis often a tendril, secondary axis often reduced; bracts minute to foliaceous, sometimes glandular. Pedicels articulate distal to bracts. Flowers mostly actinomorphic, bisexual, functionally unisexual, or polygamous; perianth persistent, segments free or partially fused at base. Sepals (3-)5(or 6). Petals (3-)5(or 6), imbricate. Corona inserted on hypanthium, composed of filaments or hairs often in multiple series. Stamens (4 or)5(-60), inserted on androgynophore or at base of hypanthium; filaments free to base or sometimes partially fused; anthers dorsifixed, 2-celled, dehiscing via longitudinal slits, sometimes with apical appendage. Ovary (1-)3(-5)-carpellate, superior, 1-loculed, sessile or stipitate on elongate androgynophore; placentation parietal; ovules many, anatropous; styles (1-)3(-5), free to partially fused at base; stigmas globose, capitate, papillate, or divided. Fruit a berry or loculicidally 3(-5)-valved capsule. Seeds numerous, compressed, often beaked, enclosed by fleshy aril; testa reticulate or pitted; endosperm copious, oily; embryo straight; cotyledons foliaceous.
About 16 genera and 660 species: mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, particularly diverse in the New World tropics; two genera and 23 species (seven endemic, seven introduced) in China.
Bao Shihying. 1999. Passifloraceae. In: Ku Tsuechih, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 52(1): 97-120.