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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 12 | Elaeocarpaceae

1. Elaeocarpus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 515. 1753.

杜英属 du ying shu

Ganitrus Gaertner; Monocera Jack.

Trees or rarely shrubs. Leaves alternate or spirally arranged; stipules linear or rarely leaflike, caducous, rarely persistent; petiole usually long and swollen at both ends; leaf blade margin serrate or entire, pinnately veined. Inflorescence axillary, racemose. Flowers bisexual, 4- or 5-merous. Sepals 4 or 5, valvate, abaxially usually pubescent. Petals 4 or 5, white, free, margin laciniate, rarely entire or lobed. Stamens 8 to numerous; filaments short; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing from apical slits, with awn or hairs at tip. Disk usually glandularly 5-10-lobed, rarely circular. Ovary superior, 2-5(-7)-loculed; ovules 2-12 per locule; style linear or subulate. Fruit a drupe, 1(or 5)-loculed; endocarp hard, bony, surface usually lacunose. Seeds usually 1 per locule, with fleshy endosperm; cotyledons thin; embryo straight or curved.

About 360 species: primarily in the Old World tropics; 39 species (14 endemic) in China.


1 Ovary and fruit 4- or 5-loculed   (2)
+ Ovary 2- or 3-loculed; fruit usually 1-loculed   (3)
       
2 (1) Branchlets hairy; lateral veins of leaves 10-13 per side.   1 E. angustifolius
+ Branchlets glabrous; lateral veins of leaves 6-9 per side.   2 E. hayatae
       
3 (1) Anthers awned at apices; exocarp shiny   (4)
+ Anthers not awned at apices; exocarp shiny or not, obscure   (13)
       
4 (3) Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate; fruit spindle-shaped.   3 E. hainanensis
+ Leaf blade not narrowly lanceolate; fruit globose or ellipsoid   (5)
       
5 (4) Fruit more than 2 cm in diam., pubescent.   4 E. rugosus
+ Fruit less than 2 cm in diam., glabrous   (6)
       
6 (5) Leaf blade oblong or elliptic; branchlets glabrous   (7)
+ Leaf blade narrowly obovate or lanceolate; branchlets pubescent   (10)
       
7 (6) Lateral veins of leaves (10-)12-14 per side.   5 E. varunua
+ Lateral veins of leaves (5-)7-10 per side   (8)
       
8 (7) Ovary and disk glabrous.   6 E. petiolatus
+ Ovary densely tomentose or slightly villous, disk villous   (9)
       
9 (8) Pedicel glabrous or slightly pilose; both surfaces of petals villous, segments 8-10.   8 E. prunifolioides
+ Pedicel densely puberulent; petals adaxially villous at base, 3-dentate.   12 E. multiflorus
       
10 (6) Leaf blade glandular in axils of lateral and tertiary veins; petals adaxially glabrous.   7 E. subpetiolatus
+ Leaf blade not glandular; petals adaxially pubescent   (11)
       
11 (10) Petal segments 17-20; leaf blade oblanceolate.   10 E. laoticus
+ Petal segments 6-12; leaf blade oblong or lanceolate   (12)
       
12 (11) Leaf blade 4-8 cm, veinlets adaxially prominently raised; ovary 3-loculed.   11 E. dubius
+ Leaf blade 12-15 cm, veinlets adaxially slightly raised; ovary 2-loculed.   9 E. bachmaensis
       
13 (3) Flowers polygamous; petals incised or entire, not laciniate; exocarp shiny   (14)
+ Flowers bisexual; petals laciniate; exocarp inconspicuous   (22)
       
14 (13) Leaf blade lanceolate or narrowly oblong, rarely ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong   (15)
+ Leaf blade elliptic, ovate, obovate, or oblanceolate   (18)
       
15 (14) Leaf blade abaxially pubescent.   38 E. brachystachyus
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous   (16)
       
16 (15) Branchlets glabrous; leaf blade leathery, veinlets adaxially prominent.   39 E. decandrus
+ Branchlets pubescent; leaf blade papery, veinlets adaxially inconspicuous   (17)
       
17 (16) Leaf blade 3-6 cm wide, lateral veins (6-)8 per side, petiole 2-6 cm.   35 E. japonicus
+ Leaf blade 2-3 cm wide, lateral veins 4-6 per side, petiole 1.5-2 cm.   37 E. chinensis
       
18 (14) Branchlets glabrous or minutely pubescent, old leaves glabrous.   35 E. japonicus
+ Branchlets and leaves at least on midvein tomentose   (19)
       
19 (18) Leaf blade golden pubescent.   36 E. auricomus
+ Leaf blade yellow-brown or silvery-gray pubescent   (20)
       
20 (19) Lateral veins of leaves 8-12 per side, petiole 3-5.5 cm; ovary glabrous.   32 E. gymnogynus
+ Lateral veins of leaves 6-9 per side, petiole 1.5-4 cm; ovary at least on upper part pubescent   (21)
       
21 (20) Branchlets and leaf blades abaxially black punctate, lateral veins 8 or 9 per side.   33 E. atropunctatus
+ Branchlets and young leaves abaxially not black punctate, lateral veins 6-8 per side.   34 E. nitentifolius
       
22 (13) Fruit less than 1.5 cm in diam   (23)
+ Fruit more than 1.5 cm in diam   (26)
       
23 (22) Branchlets glabrous, brown when dried; petals glabrous or abaxially sericeous   (24)
+ Branchlets sparsely pilose, pale; petals pubescent at least along margin   (25)
       
24 (23) Petiole nearly absent or to 4(-10) mm; peduncle and petals glabrous.   15 E. glabripetalus
+ Petiole 1.5-2 cm; peduncle densely pubescent; petals abaxially sericeous.   16 E. argenteus
       
25 (23) Leaf blade obovate, lateral veins 4 or 5 per side, petiole not shorter than 1 cm; petal segments 10-12.   14 E. sylvestris
+ Leaf blade lanceolate, lateral veins 6-10 per side, petiole ca. 0.5 cm; petal segments 7.   13 E. poilanei
       
26 (22) Branchlets glabrous or pilose only   (27)
+ Branchlets densely tomentose   (33)
       
27 (26) Leaf blade attenuate to base from middle   (28)
+ Leaf blade not attenuate, base cuneate to rounded   (29)
       
28 (27) Endocarp inconspicuously verrucose; leaf blade not less than 5.5 cm wide, petiole 2-4.5 cm, prominently swollen at upper end.   17 E. sikkimensis
+ Endocarp prominently verrucose; leaf blade to 4 cm wide, petiole to 2 cm, not swollen at upper end.   28 E. decipiens
       
29 (27) Leaf blade abaxially glandular, oblong-lanceolate.   20 E. oblongilimbus
+ Leaf blade abaxially eglandular, oblong, elliptic, oblanceolate, or lanceolate   (30)
       
30 (29) Endocarp inconspicuously verrucose   (31)
+ Endocarp conspicuously verrucose   (32)
       
31 (30) Leaf blade 13-21 × 7-9 cm, petiole not shorter than 2 cm.   19 E. austroyunnanensis
+ Leaf blade 6-12 × 2.5-4 cm, petiole not longer than 1 cm.   15 E. glabripetalus
       
32 (30) Branchlets pilose; lateral veins of leaves 8-10 per side, veinlets dense.   31 E. longlingensis
+ Branchlets glabrous; lateral veins of leaves 7 or 8 per side, veinlets sparse.   29 E. lanceifolius
       
33 (26) Leaf blade basally cuneate or attenuate from middle   (34)
+ Leaf blade basally rounded, acute, or cordate   (37)
       
34 (33) Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate.   27 E. duclouxii
+ Leaf blade oblong, ovate, or obovate-lanceolate   (35)
       
35 (34) Leaf blade obovate-lanceolate, attenuate to base from middle, lateral veins 6 or 7 per side.   22 E. harmandii
+ Leaf blade oblong or ovate-oblong, base cuneate or acute, lateral veins 7-10 per side   (36)
       
36 (35) Petals glabrous or marginally ciliate, segments 14-18; stamens 15.   30 E. limitaneoides
+ Petals adaxially villous at base, segments 10-12; stamens 26-30.   27 E. duclouxii
       
37 (33) Leaf blade basally cordate; branchlets with persistent bracts.   21 E. balansae
+ Leaf blade basally rounded or acute; branchlets without persistent bracts   (38)
       
38 (37) Flowers with persistent reniform bracteoles.   26 E. braceanus
+ Flowers without persistent reniform bracteoles   (39)
       
39 (38) Leaf blade abaxially with extremely dense silvery-gray appressed hairs.   25 E. limitaneus
+ Leaf blade abaxially brown or yellow pilose   (40)
       
40 (39) Endocarp smooth.   18 E. sphaerocarpus
+ Endocarp verrucose or lacunose   (41)
       
41 (40) Leaf blade basally rounded, lateral veins 10-13 per side.   24 E. howii
+ Leaf blade basally cuneate or obtuse, lateral veins 7 or 8 per side.   23 E. lacunosus

  • List of lower taxa


     

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