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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 17 | Lamiaceae

74. Elsholtzia Willdenow, Bot. Mag. (Romer & Usteri). 4(11): 3. 1790.

香薷属 xiang ru shu

Herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs. Verticillasters in continuous or interrupted spikes or capitula; spikes cylindric or secund, often compact, sometimes in panicles; bracts ovate or flabellate to minute, narrower than calyx. Calyx campanulate or cylindric, throat glabrous; teeth 5, subequal or anterior 2 longer. Corolla white, yellowish, or purplish, 2-lipped, hairy and glandular outside, hairy annulate or glabrous inside; tube to slightly longer than calyx, straight or slightly curved, funnelform; upper lip straight, margin entire or emarginate; lower lip spreading, 3-lobed, lateral lobes entire; middle lobe largest, margin entire, apex erose or emarginate. Stamens 4, usually exserted, anterior 2 longer, rarely undeveloped, free; filaments glabrous; anther cells 2, divergent or divaricate, apex confluent. Ovary glabrous. Style usually exserted beyond stamens, apex deeply to shallowly 2-cleft; lobes subulate, sublinear or clavate, usually equal. Nutlets ovoid to oblong, glabrous or sparsely hairy, tuberculate or smooth.

About 40 species: Europe, Japan, Korea, North America; 33 species in China.

1 Bracts lanceolate, subulate or linear.   (2)
+ Bracts flabellate, subcircular, or ± broadly ovate.   (17)
2 (1) Abaxial surface of leaves white tomentose, sometimes yellowish tomentose when dry, different in color from adaxial surface.   (3)
+ Abaxial surface of leaves glabrous or hairy, of same color as adaxial surface.   (4)
3 (2) Leaves long petiolate, elliptic to rhombic-ovate, adaxially finely corrugate, obtusely serrate; verticillasters pedunculate, loosely capitate on basal part of spikes; corolla white, sometimes purple or yellowish   1 Elsholtzia rugulosa
+ Leaves subsessile or short petiolate, lanceolate or oblanceolate, adaxially not finely corrugate, serrulate above base; verticillasters sessile, capitate; corolla white to green-yellow   2 Elsholtzia myosurus
4 (2) Abaxial surface of leaves glabrous or puberulent on veins.   (5)
+ Abaxial surfaces of leaves variously hairy.   (7)
5 (4) Lower verticillasters widely spaced; flowers pendulous when open; calyx glabrous outside   11 Elsholtzia penduliflora
+ Verticillasters continuous; flowers not pendulous when open; calyx tomentose outside.   (6)
6 (5) Spikes ± secund; corolla ca. 9 mm, rose-purple; leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate   7 Elsholtzia stauntonii
+ Spikes cylindric; corolla ca. 4 mm, white; leaves rhombic-lanceolate   4 Elsholtzia glabra
7 (4) Shrubs or subshrubs; corolla white or yellow.   (8)
+ Herbs; corolla mostly purple-red, rarely white.   (12)
8 (7) Inflorescences capitate; leaves elliptic-oblong to oblong, 0.8-2 cm × 2-5 mm, densely floccose-pubescent, shallowly crenate above base   9 Elsholtzia capituligera
+ Inflorescences spicate; leaves larger than 2 cm × 5 mm, coarsely dentate.   (9)
9 (8) Spikes ± secund, loose; bracts subulate to lanceolate-subulate   14 Elsholtzia blanda
+ Spikes cylindric, compact; bracts lanceolate.   (10)
10 (9) Leaves lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, coarsely serrate, apex acuminate   3 Elsholtzia fruticosa
+ Leaves ovate to oblong, crenate to crenate-serrate, apex acute.   (11)
11 (10) Bracts conspicuous; calyx densely lanate-pilose outside; leaves subsessile   5 Elsholtzia eriocalyx
+ Bracts inconspicuous; calyx yellowish white tomentose outside; leaves petiolate   6 Elsholtzia ochroleuca
12 (7) Inflorescences capitate, loose; annual diffuse herbs   12 Elsholtzia cephalantha
+ Inflorescences spicate, compact; erect herbs (except E. pilosa).   (13)
13 (12) Inflorescences terminal, axillary; corolla white   8 Elsholtzia winitiana
+ Inflorescences inserted on stem and branch apices; corolla rose-purple or purple.   (14)
14 (13) Plants pilose-hispid; bracts densely, rigid, spreading white ciliate   13 Elsholtzia pilosa
+ Plants pubescent; bracts pubescent or pilose.   (15)
15 (14) Spikes 5(-8) mm in diam. in flower; leaves rhombic-ovate, incised-serrate above base, adaxially sparsely pubescent   15 Elsholtzia stachyodes
+ Spikes 8-10 mm in diam. in flower; leaves ovate to oblong, serrate to crenate, adaxially puberulent or villous.   (16)
16 (15) Plants with strong citral fragrance; calyx apex conspicuously curved forward after anthesis, densely lanate-villous; cultivated species, rarely naturalized   16 Elsholtzia communis
+ Plants without citral fragrance; calyx apex straight curved forward, densely pubescent; native species   17 Elsholtzia cyprianii
17 (1) Leaves broadly ovate to subcircular, 8-15 cm   10 Elsholtzia flava
+ Leaves not broadly ovate or subcircular, 0.5-12 cm.   (18)
18 (17) Bracts united into a cup at each node, densely overlapping.   (19)
+ Bracts free.   (22)
19 (18) Spikes cylindric, not secund   20 Elsholtzia strobilifera
+ Spikes secund.   (20)
20 (19) Corolla white to yellowish; bract with numerous, irregular subulate teeth (entire or 1- or 2-toothed in var. holostegia)   23 Elsholtzia luteola
+ Corolla rose-purple; bracts 1-mucronate.   (21)
21 (20) Stems straight, unbranched or few branched on upper part, with slender, basal stolons; leaves heteromorphic   21 Elsholtzia heterophylla
+ Stems prostrate, ascending, base branched, sometimes with numerous short stolons; leaves not heteromorphic   22 Elsholtzia bodinieri
22 (18) Spikes cylindric.   (23)
+ Spikes secund.   (27)
23 (22) Spikes interrupted at base at anthesis.   (24)
+ Spikes not interrupted at base.   (25)
24 (23) Corolla yellow; calyx densely yellow moniliform villous, cylindric   18 Elsholtzia eriostachya
+ Corolla purplish; calyx densely purple moniliform villous, subglobose   19 Elsholtzia densa
25 (23) Abaxial leaf surface densely puberulent, ± pilose on veins   27 Elsholtzia oldhamii
+ Abaxial leaf surface finely pilose or puberulent.   (26)
26 (25) Plants prostrate, producing adventitious roots on basal part of stem; leaves ovate to ovate- lanceolate; bracts pilose outside   25 Elsholtzia kachinensis
+ Plants erect, without adventitious roots on lower part of stem; leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate; bracts glabrous outside   28 Elsholtzia saxatilis
27 (22) Leaves 1-1.5 cm, linear to linear-lanceolate   26 Elsholtzia pygmaea
+ Leaves more than 1.5 cm, oblong or ovate to lanceolate.   (28)
28 (27) Leaf blade base rounded to shallowly cordate, auriculate-dentate; corolla rose red, 2-3 mm   24 Elsholtzia hunanensis
+ Leaf blade base attenuate, cuneate, decurrent, rarely rounded; corolla purple to rose-purple, 4.5-8 mm.   (29)
29 (28) Bracts usually discolored, glabrous or subglabrous, margin ciliate.   (30)
+ Bracts usually purplish at least on veins, long pilose.   (31)
30 (29) Calyx teeth unequal, anterior 2 longer; leaves ovate to elliptic-lanceolate; corolla ca. 4.5 mm   33 Elsholtzia ciliata
+ Calyx teeth subequal; leaves ovate-triangular to oblong-lanceolate; corolla 6-7 mm   29 Elsholtzia splendens
31 (29) Calyx teeth ± equal; petiole 8-25 mm; plants 50-100 cm   30 Elsholtzia argyi
+ Calyx teeth unequal, anterior 2 longer; petiole 2-8 mm; plants rarely to 50 cm.   (32)
32 (31) Petiole white floccose; leaf blade lanceolate, base attenuate, margin serrate, apex acuminate; corolla ca. 6 mm   31 Elsholtzia souliei
+ Petiole pubescent; leaf blade ovate, base rounded to broadly cuneate, margin crenate, apex obtuse; corolla ca. 8 mm   32 Elsholtzia feddei

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