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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Clusiaceae

1. Hypericum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 783. 1753.

金丝桃属 jin si tao shu

Authors: Xi-wen Li & Norman K. B. Robson

Hypericum monanthemum

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Sarothra Linnaeus.

[Trees or] shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs, glabrous or with simple hairs, with translucent ("pale") and often opaque, black or reddish ("dark") glands, laminar (immersed and sometimes abaxial) and marginal or intramarginal. Leaves opposite [or whorled], sessile or short petiolate, venation pinnate to palmate [or rarely dichotomous], margin entire or gland-fringed. Inflorescence cymose. Flowers bisexual, homostylous [or heterostylous], stellate or cupped. Sepals 5 and quincuncial or rarely 4 and decussate, unequal or equal, free or partly united. Petals (4 or)5, contorted, golden to lemon yellow [or rarely white], abaxially sometimes tinged or veined red, persistent or deciduous after anthesis, usually asymmetric. Stamens in [4 or]5 fascicles, free and antipetalous, or some united to form apparently 4 or 3 fascicles with compound fascicle(s) antisepalous, or irregular and apparently not fasciculate, persistent or deciduous, each single fascicle with up to 70[-120] stamens; filaments slender, free from nearly base [or to 2/3 united] or apparently completely free; anthers small, dorsifixed or ± basifixed, dehiscing longitudinally, with gland on connective; sterile fascicles (fasciclodes) absent [very rare]. Ovary 3-5-loculed with axile placentae or ± completely 1-loculed with (2 or)3[-5] parietal placentae, each placenta with [2 or] few to many ovules; styles (2 or)3-5, free or partly to completely united, ± slender; stigmas small or ± capitate. Fruit a septicidal capsule or rarely ± indehiscent, valves often with oil-containing vittae or vesicles. Seeds small, often carinate or narrowly unilaterally winged; testa variously sculptured, not arillate [very rarely carunculate]; embryo slender, straight, with distinct slender cotyledons.

About 460 species: almost cosmopolitan except for arctic and desert areas and most of the lowland tropics; 64 species (33 endemic) in China.

Species of Hypericum are distributed nearly throughout China but are most abundant in the southwest and rare in Xinjiang.

In addition, Hypericum prolificum Linnaeus, a North American species in H. sect. Myriandra (Spach) R. Keller, has been recorded (as H. densiflorum Pursh) from Jiangxi (Lushan).

1 Petals and stamens deciduous after anthesis (rarely tardily); shrubs or rarely subshrubs; plant always without dark glands   (2)
+ Petals and stamens persistent after anthesis; herbs; plant very often with dark glands   (39)
2 (1) Styles completely united; anthers ± basifixed   (3)
+ Styles free or partly united; anthers markedly dorsifixed   (6)
3 (2) Sepals 1-3 mm, mostly broadly ovate to oblong, usually obtuse to rounded, without distinct midvein.   33 H. geminiflorum
+ Sepals 3.5-10 mm, mostly lanceolate or narrowly elliptic to linear, acute to subacute (or rarely rounded), often with distinct midvein   (4)
4 (3) Stems 4-angled or 4-winged when mature; leaves usually narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, acute to subacute.   34 H. subalatum
+ Stems terete when mature; leaves ovate to elliptic or obovate, subacute to rounded   (5)
5 (4) Sepals obovate to lanceolate, 7-10 mm, ascending in fruit; petals 10-20 mm; leaves ovate to elliptic.   31 H. formosanum
+ Sepals linear-lanceolate, 3.5-8 mm, reflexed in fruit; petals 20-28 mm; leaves elliptic to obovate.   32 H. nakamurae
6 (2) Leaves (at least upper) sessile, thickly leathery, without visible reticulate venation abaxially; styles free   1 H. augustinii
+ Leaves all subsessile or short petiolate or, if sessile, then visibly ± densely reticulate-veined abaxially and/or with styles ± united   (7)
7 (6) Stem prostrate to ascending or pendent, forming low mats or clumps; styles ca. as long as ovary.   2 H. reptans
+ Stem erect to straggling, not mat-forming   (8)
8 (7) Styles partly coherent or ± united, at least 1.4 × as long as ovary; leaves usually densely reticulate-veined abaxially (except in   8 H. longistylum).
+ Styles free, usually less than 1.4 × as long as ovary; leaves usually laxly or not visibly reticulate-veined abaxially   (14)
9 Styles coherent in lower half at first   (10)
+ Styles united nearly to apex; petiole absent or to 1.5 mm (except in   4 H. monogynum).
10 (9) Leaves sessile, blade ovate-oblong to ovate, venation densely reticulate.   3 H. griffithii
+ Leaf petiole 1.5-2 mm, blade oblong to elliptic, venation laxly reticulate.   5 H. cohaerens
11 Suffrutex; petals and stamens tardily deciduous.   7 H. elatoides
+ Shrub; petals and stamens soon deciduous   (12)
12 (11) Leaves without visible reticulate venation abaxially, 1-3.3 cm; inflorescence always 1-flowered.   8 H. longistylum
+ Leaves densely reticulate-veined abaxially, (2-)3-11 cm; inflorescence 1-30-flowered, terminal on long shoots   (13)
13 (12) Leaves with base cuneate to rounded, or if cordate then apex rounded; leaf blade usually broadest at or above middle.   4 H. monogynum
+ Leaves with base cordate-amplexicaul, apex acute to acuminate; leaf blade elliptic-ovate to broadly ovate.   6 H. prattii
14 (8) Leaves sessile, densely reticulate-veined.   3 H. griffithii
+ Leaves subsessile or petiolate, laxly or not visibly reticulate-veined   (15)
15 (14) Petals waxy, golden yellow; stamens 0.25-0.35 × as long as petals, densely crowded   (16)
+ Petals not waxy, golden to pale yellow; stamens longer than 0.35 × as long as petals or, if equal or shorter, then not densely crowded   (18)
16 (15) Sepals spreading-incurved in bud and in fruit, often becoming markedly ribbed; capsule ovoid to ovoid-conic.   11 H. hookerianum
+ Sepals erect to spreading in bud, spreading to recurved in fruit, not ribbed; capsule narrowly ovoid-cylindric to narrowly ellipsoid-cylindric   (17)
17 (16) Leaves narrowly ovate to lanceolate, base rounded, with dense abaxial glands and short laminar glandular streaks; sepals spreading in bud, reflexed in fruit.   9 H. fosteri
+ Leaves narrowly lanceolate, base cuneate, without abaxial glands, with long laminar glandular streaks; sepals erect in bud, spreading in fruit.   10 H. wardianum
18 (15) Sepals spreading to recurved at anthesis and in fruit; leaf venation often markedly reticulate or at least conspicuous abaxially (except in   13 H. acmosepalum).
+ Sepals erect and outcurving or appressed in flower and fruit; leaf venation neither visibly reticulate nor conspicuous   (25)
19 Leaves elliptic to oblong or (lower) oblanceolate (broadest at or above middle), never triangular; sepals deciduous or outcurving   (20)
+ Leaves ovate or lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate (broadest below middle), sometimes triangular; sepals persistent, spreading to recurved   (21)
20 (19) Leaves subsessile, narrowly elliptic, markedly reticulate-veined; sepals deciduous, spreading, ovate to elliptic, often leaflike; capsule 16-21 mm, purplish red when maturing.   12 H. subsessile
+ Leaves petiolate (0.5-1.5 mm), narrowly elliptic to oblong, not reticulate-veined but with conspicuous intramarginal vein; sepals persistent, ovate to narrowly lanceolate, not leaflike; capsule 9-15 mm, bright red at first when maturing.   13 H. acmosepalum
21 (19) Sepals elliptic to oblong or foliose; leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, ± triangular, with venation (secondary and sometimes tertiary) conspicuous   (22)
+ Sepals lanceolate-elliptic to lanceolate (or rarely leaflike); leaves lanceolate to oblong or ovate, not triangular, usually without conspicuous venation   (23)
22 (21) Petals obovate-oblanceolate, flowers stellate; stamens ca. 3/5 as long as petals; styles 0.85-1 × as long as ovary; leaves densely glaucous abaxially, petiole 0.5-2 mm.   14 H. maclarenii
+ Petals broadly obovate to obovate-suborbicular, flowers shallowly to deeply cupped; stamens 0.35-0.4 × as long as petals; styles 0.35-0.7 × as long as ovary; leaves thinly or not glaucous abaxially, petiole 2-4 mm.   15 H. choisyanum
23 (21) Styles shorter than ovary; inflorescence 1(-3)-flowered; leaves triangular-lanceolate to triangular-ovate.   18 H. curvisepalum
+ Styles ca. as long as ovary or more; inflorescence (1-)3-14-flowered; leaves oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate to narrowly ovate   (24)
24 (23) Styles outcurved distally; inflorescence branches usually relatively stout; leaf abaxial glands usually few or none.   16 H. lancasteri
+ Styles straight or flexuous; inflorescence branches relatively slender; leaf abaxial glands dense.   17 H. stellatum
25 (18) Sepals with broad hyaline margin; stems erect to arching with ± numerous lateral branches, often frondose, markedly ancipitous (2-edged) when young   (26)
+ Sepals without or with a very narrow hyaline margin; stems erect to spreading but not frondose, not or scarcely ancipitous (2-edged) when young   (30)
26 (25) Sepals entire, at least outer broadly elliptic or broadly oblong to circular, obtuse to rounded; stems erect, not frondose.   19 H. henryi
+ Sepals eroded-denticulate or, if entire, then elliptic or narrowly oblong to oblanceolate, rounded to acute; stems erect or spreading, sometimes frondose   (27)
27 (26) Sepals eroded-denticulate to subentire, usually apiculate, broadly elliptic to broadly ovate; leaf apex usually apiculate-obtuse to rounded   (28)
+ Sepals entire, rarely apiculate, elliptic to narrowly oblong or obovate-spatulate; leaf apex acute to rounded-apiculate   (29)
28 (27) Stems erect to arching or rarely divaricate, not frondose, ± persistently 4-lined; leaf-apex acute to rounded but rarely apiculate; capsule 10-14 mm.   19 H. henryi
+ Stems spreading, sometimes frondose, soon 2-lined; leaf-apex obtuse to rounded, always apiculate; capsule 9-11 mm.   20 H. patulum
29 (27) Flower buds acute to obtuse; sepals subacute to rounded; stems erect or arching, not or only distally frondose.   19 H. henryi
+ Flower buds obtuse to rounded; sepals rounded; stems arching, often frondose.   21 H. uralum
30 (25) Stems slender, spreading especially when young; capsules lobed or grooved   (31)
+ Stems stout, erect to arching but not spreading; capsules not lobed or grooved   (32)
31 (30) Styles 0.5-0.85 × as long as ovary; sepals with inconspicuous midvein, outcurving in fruit; flower buds ovoid to ovoid-pyramidal, obtuse to acute.   22 H. lagarocladum
+ Styles 1.5-1.8 × as long as ovary; sepals with conspicuous midvein, erect in fruit; flower buds narrowly ovoid, acute to acuminate.   23 H. wilsonii
32 (30) Styles 1.2-1.35 × as long as ovary; petals spreading to reflexed, apiculus acute; sepals acute, spreading in fruit.   28 H. kouytchense
+ Styles 0.6-1.1 × as long as ovary; petals incurved to spreading, apiculus obtuse to rounded; sepals acute to rounded, spreading to erect in fruit   (33)
33 (32) Sepals ± spreading in bud and sometimes in fruit; ovary and capsule narrowly cylindric-ellipsoid to broadly pyramidal-ovoid; leaf apex acute to rounded-apiculate.   24 H. beanii
+ Sepals erect in bud and erect or incurved in fruit; ovary and capsule ovoid to subglobose or pyramidal-ovoid; leaf apex obtuse to rounded   (34)
34 (33) Leaves broadly elliptic or very broadly elliptic-oblong to orbicular, margin plane   24 H. beanii
+ Leaves lanceolate to broadly ovate or, if circular, then margin undulate   (35)
35 (34) Branches spreading; sepals acute to rounded-apiculate; stamens ca. 0.4 × as long as petals; leaves with lower 1 or 2 pairs of main lateral veins usually free.   25 H. addingtonii
+ Branches erect to arching; sepals acute to rounded; stamens ca. 0.5 × as long as petals or more, or, if relatively shorter, then sepals rounded; leaves with all main lateral veins incurved to join next upper vein   (36)
36 (35) Ovary and capsule subglobose to broadly or narrowly ovoid; leaves lanceolate to ovate, rhombic, or subcircular; sepal margin not or scarcely hyaline   (37)
+ Ovary and capsule pyramidal-ovoid; leaves triangular-lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong to ± broadly triangular-ovate; sepal margin distinctly hyaline   (38)
37 (36) Sepals ovate to broadly elliptic, obtuse or apiculate to rounded; capsule broadly ovoid; flowers 4-6 cm in diam.; stamens (0.5-)0.6-0.7 × as long as petals; leaf ratio (l:w) = 1.8-2.5, base cuneate to rounded, margin plane.   26 H. latisepalum
+ Sepals narrowly elliptic or oblong to obovate, usually rounded; capsule narrowly ovoid; flowers 2.5-3.5 cm in diam.; stamens 0.35-0.45(-0.6) × as long as petals; leaf ratio (l:w) = 1.1-1.6, base truncate to subcordate or, if cuneate, then margin undulate.   27 H. bellum
38 (36) Sepals acute to obtuse, outcurved in fruit; stems ± persistently 4-lined; leaves usually lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong to ovate-oblong; petals spreading to reflexed; flower buds subacute to apiculate.   29 H. pseudohenryi
+ Sepals rounded or rarely apiculate, erect in fruit; stems soon terete; leaves triangular-ovate or, more rarely, lanceolate or ± broadly ovate; petals incurved; flower buds rounded.   30 H. forrestii
39 (1) Styles (4 or)5; stamen fascicles 5, free; dark glands absent   (40)
+ Styles (2 or)3(or 4); stamen fascicles usually apparently 3 or stamens irregularly arranged; dark glands usually present   (41)
40 (39) Leaf apex acute to obtuse, blade mostly lanceolate to elliptic-oblong or linear; mature stem internodes sharply 4-lined to narrowly 4-winged.   35 H. ascyron
+ Leaf apex rounded to shallowly retuse, blade oblong to oblong-lanceolate, oblong-ovate, or triangular-oblong; mature stem internodes partially 2- or 4-lined or terete.   36 H. przewalskii
41 (39) Dark glands absent; stem internodes 4-lined or narrowly 4-winged; stamens irregularly arranged   (42)
+ Dark (black or reddish) glands present on at least sepals and/or anthers or leaves; stem internodes 2-lined or terete; stamens usually apparently 3(or 4)-fascicled   (43)
42 (41) Stamens 30-40, styles 0.7-1.8 mm; stems branching strictly from base or unbranched, not rooting; leaves ovate-lanceolate to linear (l:w = 3-5).   63 H. gramineum
+ Stamens 5-30, styles 0.4-1 mm; stems usually branching ± widely along most of stem, rooting at base; leaves usually ovate or triangular-ovate to oblong or elliptic (l:w = 1.5-2.5).   64 H. japonicum
43 (41) Anther gland amber; dark glands sometimes present on leaves but not forming inframarginal row; seeds with testa ± markedly papillose   (44)
+ Anther gland dark; dark glands nearly always forming inframarginal row on leaves; seeds with testa reticulate to foveolate   (46)
44 (43) Stem and leaves pubescent; inflorescence usually pyramidal; sepals gland-fringed; stems creeping and rooting.   62 H. hirsutum
+ Stem and leaves glabrous; inflorescence ± cylindric or flat-topped; sepal margin with few or no glands; stems not creeping or rooting   (45)
45 (44) Inflorescence ± cylindric; stem smooth.   60 H. elongatum
+ Inflorescence flat-topped; stem scabrid with red-gland-tipped emergences.   61 H. scabrum
46 (43) Stem internodes markedly 2(or 4)-lined   (47)
+ Stem internodes terete or rarely 2-4(-6)-lined when stems weak or slender   (50)
47 (46) Capsule valves with central linear and lateral vesicular glands; stems much branched distally with branching divergent-ascending and black glands confined to lines.   57 H. perforatum
+ Capsule valves with linear glands only; stems sparingly branched below inflorescence with branching virgate and black glands not confined to lines or completely absent   (48)
48 (47) Stems with dark glands, erect; capsule broadly ovoid to narrowly conic; stamens apparently 3-fascicled.   56 H. attenuatum
+ Stems without dark glands, suberect to ascending; capsule broadly to narrowly ovoid; stamens irregularly arranged   (49)
49 (48) Sepals without dark laminar streaks or, if present, then apex obtuse; leaves variable in size and shape but, if less than 15 mm, then narrow (l:w = 4-12).   58 H. nagasawae
+ Sepals with dark laminar streaks, apex acute to subacuminate; leaves short (4-12 mm) and broad (l:w = 2-3.1).   59 H. nokoense
50 (46) Leaf pairs perfoliate; capsule valves with vesicular glands only.   37 H. sampsonii
+ Leaf pairs free; capsule valves with longitudinal vittae only   (51)
51 (50) Leaves and sometimes sepals and petals with laminar glands dark only   (52)
+ Leaves, sepals, and petals with laminar glands (if present) partly or completely pale   (55)
52 (51) Sepals entire, sepals and petals 5   (53)
+ Sepals glandular-ciliate or, if entire, then sepals and petals 4   (54)
53 (52) Leaves sessile, triangular-ovate to narrowly elliptic, not minutely papillose; stems usually unbranched below inflorescence.   55 H. erectum
+ Leaves petiolate, oblong to obovate, adaxially minutely papillose; stems branching from most nodes.   53 H. enshiense
54 (52) Styles 4-5 mm; capsule broadly ovoid; uppermost leaf pair bracteose; sepals and petals 5.   47 H. trigonum
+ Styles 1.5-3 mm; capsule globose; uppermost leaf foliar; sepals and petals 4.   50 H. monanthemum
55 (51) Sepals entire, oblong to ovate-oblong, obtuse (or rarely acute) to rounded, not leaflike   (56)
+ Sepals dark-gland-fringed or, if entire, then acute or leaflike   (58)
56 (55) Leaf laminar glands mostly black.   53 H. enshiense
+ Leaf laminar glands all or mostly pale or absent   (57)
57 (56) Leaves without or rarely with a few large pale or pale and dark laminar glands, main lateral veins 2- or 3-paired.   52 H. faberi
+ Leaves with dense small pale laminar glands; main lateral veins 3-4-paired.   54 H. taihezanense
58 (55) Leaves with laminar glands large, prominent, dense; leaf blade usually lanceolate or narrowly elliptic to linear or obovate; marginal glands round-topped   (59)
+ Leaves with laminar glands small, not prominent, often sparse, or absent; leaf blade ovate or triangular-ovate to elliptic, oblong, or circular; marginal glands flat-topped   (65)
59 (58) Sepals entire or occasionally with few glandular cilia; bracts without or with short glandular auricles; leaves entire   (60)
+ Sepals regularly glandular-ciliate; bracts and sometimes upper leaves glandular-ciliate and with glandular-ciliate auricles   (62)
60 (59) Leaves with petiole 1-10 mm, base usually cuneate to angustate; sepals with few irregularly spaced marginal glands or none; styles 1-2.5 mm, 0.7-1.3 × as long as ovary.   39 H. petiolulatum
+ Leaves sessile or with broad petiole to 1 mm, base subcordate-amplexicaul to cuneate; sepals with marginal glands in ± regular row; styles 2.5-10 mm, 1.5-3 × as long as ovary   (61)
61 (60) Leaves oblong-lanceolate to narrowly oblong, 5-13 mm wide; sepal and petal laminar glands pale.   38 H. seniawinii
+ Leaves oblong-ovate, 10-16 mm wide; sepal and petal laminar glands black.   40 H. hubeiense
62 (59) Leaves broadly ovate-oblong or broadly elliptic to suborbicular, 6-14 mm, entire, apex rounded, without glandular auricles.   44 H. kingdonii
+ Leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or linear, 1-6 cm, sometimes glandular-ciliate, apex acute to obtuse, the upper with glandular auricles   (63)
63 (62) Styles ca. 1.7 mm, shorter than ovary; sepals ovate, 3-5 mm; leaves ternate.   43 H. austroyunnanicum
+ Styles 3-18 mm, longer than ovary; sepals lanceolate to oblong, 5-9 mm; leaves paired   (64)
64 (63) Styles 3-7 × as long as ovary, 6-18 mm; pedicels 0.5-3(-6) mm; petal laminar glands pale.   41 H. hengshanense
+ Styles ca. 2 × as long as ovary, 3-8 mm; pedicels 3-12 mm; petal laminar glands all or mostly dark.   42 H. elodeoides
65 (58) Leaves elliptic-oblong to lanceolate and/or with glandular-ciliate margin and auricles   (66)
+ Leaves (triangular-)ovate to elliptic or oblong or obovate to oblanceolate, entire (uppermost pair sometimes bracteose)   (67)
66 (65) Ovary and capsule ellipsoid to cylindric-ellipsoid; leaves all sessile, entire; sepals lanceolate to narrowly oblong-elliptic, acute, glandular-ciliate.   45 H. daliense
+ Ovary and capsule ovoid to globose; leaves (at least upper) glandular-ciliate, lower often petiolate; sepals broadly oblong or ± broadly elliptic, acute to obtuse, glandular-ciliate to -laciniate.   46 H. wightianum
67 (65) Ovary and capsule ovoid (or ovary ellipsoid) to subglobose; styles 1.5-3 mm; uppermost leaf pair leaflike   (68)
+ Ovary and capsule ± ellipsoid or, if ovoid-ellipsoid to broadly ovoid, then styles 4-5 mm; uppermost leaf pair bracteose   (69)
68 (67) Leaves (at least uppermost) sessile; sepals with pale laminar glandular lines or, if dark, then margin glandular-ciliate; ovary ovoid to subglobose.   50 H. monanthemum
+ Leaves all short petiolate; sepals all with dark linear laminar glands, entire; ovary ellipsoid.   51 H. subcordatum
69 (67) Styles 4-5 mm; capsule broadly ovoid; leaves all sessile, blade oblong to triangular-ovate.   47 H. trigonum
+ Styles 2-3 mm; capsule ± ellipsoid; some or all leaves petiolate, blade triangular-ovate to elliptic or oblanceolate to obovate   (70)
70 (69) Stem unbranched below apical node or with a few short suberect branches; styles usually longer than ovary; sepals usually without dark laminar glands.   48 H. ludlowii
+ Stem nearly always with long ± spreading branches from up to 5 nodes; styles usually (?always) ca. as long as ovary or less; sepals usually with dark laminar glands.   49 H. himalaicum

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