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23. Panax Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1058. 1753.

人参属 ren shen shu

Panax japonicus

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, perennial, with stout rootstock, hermaphroditic or perhaps andromonoecious, unarmed. Stem simple, with scales at base. Leaves palmately compound, in whorls of 3-5; leaflets entire to serrate or dentate or pinnately lobed. Inflorescence a solitary, terminal umbel. Pedicels articulate below bisexual flowers, inarticulate below male flowers. Calyx shortly 5-toothed. Petals 5, imbricate. Stamens 5. Ovary 2- or 3(-5)-carpellate; styles distinct or basally united, as many as carpels. Fruit a drupe, globose, sometimes slightly compressed or triangular. Seeds laterally compressed, as many as carpels; endosperm smooth.

About eight species: E Asia, Himalayan region, Indochina, North America; seven species (one introduced) in China.

We were unable to treat Panax wangianus S. C. Sun (Icon. Pl. Omei. 2(1): 194. 1946 ["wangianum"]; P. pseudoginseng Wallich var. wangianus (S. C. Sun) G. Hoo & C. J. Tseng), described from Sichuan, because we were unable to consult the type material.

1 Rootstock usually horizontal, flagellate or moniliform; seeds ovoid, 3-5 × 2-4 mm.   1 P. japonicus
+ Rootstock fusiform or tuberous; seeds globose-nephroid or compressed-globose, 5-8 mm in diam   (2)
2 (1) Leaflets 2-pinnatifid, adaxially setose on veins; styles 2, usually united into a column; seeds subglobose.   2 P. stipuleanatus
+ Leaflets not 2-pinnatifid; styles 2(or 3), divided at least apically   (3)
3 (2) Rootstock tuberous, resembling that of species of Zingiber; leaflets sessile or subsessile; seeds triangular-subglobose.   3 P. zingiberensis
+ Rootstock fusiform; leaflets usually petiolulate; seeds ovoid-globose or laterally compressed   (4)
4 (3) Seeds ovoid-globose, slightly 3-ridged, not laterally compressed, thickness 5-6 mm; leaflets obovate or obovate-oblong; umbels 80-100(or more)-flowered; styles united at least to middle.   4 P. notoginseng
+ Seeds laterally compressed, thickness 2-2.5 mm; leaflets elliptic or oblong, or if obovate then apically acuminate; umbels 20-50-flowered; styles 2, free to base   (5)
5 (4) Leaflets 1.5-2 mm, adaxially setose on veins, apically long caudate-acuminate; bases of petioles and of petiolules with numerous lanceolate, stipulelike appendages; pedicels longer, glabrous; rootstock fleshy, 2-5-fascicled.   5 P. pseudoginseng
+ Leaflets ca. 1 mm, glabrous or adaxially sparsely setose, apically shortly acuminate, margin serrate; bases of petiole and petiolules without stipulelike appendages or with only hairlike appendages; pedicels rough; rootstock usually 1- or 2-fascicled   (6)
6 (5) Peduncle longer than petiole; leaflets sparsely minutely setose on veins, margin densely serrulate.   6 P. ginseng
+ Peduncle not exceeding petiole; leaflets sparsely setose on veins or glabrous, margin coarsely serrate or dentate.   7 P. quinquefolius

  • List of lower taxa


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