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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 17 | Lamiaceae

56. Salvia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 23. 1753.

鼠尾草属 shu wei cao shu

Salvia przewalskii

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs. Leaves simple or pinnately compound. Verticillasters 2- to many flowered, in racemes, panicles, or spikes, rarely solitary, axillary; bracteoles minute. Calyx tubular to campanulate, hairy or glabrous on throat inside, 2-lipped; upper lip entire, 2-toothed, or 3-mucronate; lower lip 2-toothed. Corolla 2-lipped; tube straight, horizontal, curved upward or adaxially dilated, with or without hairy annulus inside; upper lip folded, straight or falcate, apex entire or emarginate; lower lip spreading, 3-lobed; middle lobe widest, margin entire, apex emarginate, fringed, or 2-lobulate; lateral lobes oblong or circular, spreading or reflexed. Stamens 2; filaments short, horizontal or erect; connectives prolonged, linear, T-shaped; upper arms with fertile elliptic or linear anther cells; lower arms robust or slender, with fertile or sterile anther cells, separated or connected to each other; staminodes 2, small or absent. Style 2-cleft, lobes subulate, linear or circular, equal, anterior lobe larger or posterior lobe indistinct. Disc slightly swollen in front or ringlike. Nutlets triquetrous, ovoid or oblong, glabrous, smooth.

Salvia tiliifolia Vahl, an introduction from Central America and Mexico, should be added to the treatment of Salvia in the Flora of China based on specimens from western Guizhou, Sichuan, southeastern Xizang and Yunnan. The earliest known collection, from Yunnan (GH), was gathered in 1980, but based on its wide distribution, S. tiliifolia was almost certainly well-established before that.

About 900(-1100) species: tropical and temperate zones of the Old and New World, 84 species in China.

There are many taxonomic problems in the flora area, especially in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces; collation with the situation in the Himalaya is much needed.

1 Connectives ± curved, semicircular or arcuate; upper arms longer than or equal to lower arms; anther cells on ends of upper and lower arms fertile.   (2)
+ Connectives ± straight, not curved, semicircular; anther cells of lower arms sterile.   (47)
2 (1) Cultivated small shrubs or shrubby herbs; upper calyx lip conspicuously 3-toothed   45 Salvia officinalis
+ Herbs; upper calyx lip entire or very approximately 3-tipped; lower anther cells united.   (3)
3 (2) Annual or biennial; stem much branched; leaves nearly all on stem.   (4)
+ Perennial herbs; stem unbranched; leaves nearly all basal.   (6)
4 (3) Corolla 1-1.3(-1.6) cm, yellow   44 Salvia roborowskii
+ Corolla more than 2 cm.   (5)
5 (4) Corolla yellow; leaves triangular-hastate to sagittate, basal lobes horizontally prolonged, triangular   42 Salvia tricuspis
+ Corolla blue-purple or purple; leaves triangular to ovate-triangular, basal lobes scarcely prolonged   43 Salvia umbratica
6 (3) Filaments longer than connectives.   (7)
+ Filaments shorter than to as long as connectives.   (29)
7 (6) Calyx 2-lipped to 1/2 its length   18 Salvia schizocalyx
+ Calyx 2-lipped 1/4 -1/3 its length, rarely to 1/2 after anthesis.   (8)
8 (7) Filaments more than 3 × as long as connectives, connectives 1.8-2.7(-6) mm.   (9)
+ Filaments to ca. 2 × as long as connectives, mostly more than 3 mm (except S. sonchifolia).   (15)
9 (8) Petiole narrowly long winged; lower surface of blades densely gray tomentose   15 Salvia alatipetiolata
+ Petiole not winged, rarely dilated into wing or sheath.   (10)
10 (9) Adaxial corolla lip 2-lobed to its base; lobes ovate, apex subacute   23 Salvia schizochila
+ Apex of upper corolla lip emarginate, not 2-lobed to base.   (11)
11 (10) Corolla 1.2-1.8 cm, upper lip densely villous or white bearded.   (12)
+ Corolla mostly more than 2 cm, upper lip pilose or subglabrous outside.   (13)
12 (11) Leaf base cordate or subhastate, basal lobes mostly circular; corolla violet or purple, upper lip densely white bearded outside   21 Salvia mairei
+ Leaf base cordate or hastate, basal lobes acute; corolla blue-purple, upper lip densely villous outside   22 Salvia pogonochila
13 (11) Stems and petioles retrorse pilose; leaves shallowly cordate or hastate, basal lobes acute sometimes rounded, apex acute or short acuminate; bracts broadly ovate   19 Salvia brachyloma
+ Stems and petioles densely spreading pilose, brown pilose or glabrescent; leaves cordate or subtruncate, rarely shallow hastate at base; bracts ovate or oblong-elliptic.   (14)
14 (13) Leaves elliptic-ovate, base subtruncate or shallow cordate; corolla 1.7-1.9 cm   20 Salvia lankongensis
+ Leaves ovate or triangular-ovate, strongly emarginate or cordate rarely shallow hastate at base; corolla 2.6-3.5 cm   16 Salvia evansiana
15 (8) Abaxial surface of leaves densely white or brown tomentose.   (16)
+ Abaxial surface of leaves not tomentose.   (18)
16 (15) Corolla double zigzag; tube narrowly cylindric, zigzag basally; exserted portion abruptly dilated, curved upward, purple-brown, chestnut brown, or dark purple; leaves elliptic-lanceolate or oblong-ovate, base rounded to subcordate   33 Salvia castanea
+ Corolla spreading, not curved upward.   (17)
17 (16) Leaves oblong-elliptic, base rounded or shallow cordate; corolla yellow   5 Salvia digitaloides
+ Leaves triangular-hastate or elliptic-hastate, rarely cordate-ovate, sometimes with rounded lateral lobes, base cordate or hastate; corolla purple-red to red-brown   6 Salvia przewalskii
18 (15) Corolla straight, 4-5 cm, rarely shorter.   (19)
+ Corolla straight or curved upward, less than 3.6 cm, rarely to 4 cm.   (22)
19 (18) Calyx 1.7-2.2 cm, upper lip shorter than lower lip; leaves cordate-ovate to hastate-ovate, irregularly mucronate crenate-dentate   3 Salvia dolichantha
+ Calyx 0.8-1.9 cm; leaves ovate to oblong-hastate, rarely crenate.   (20)
20 (19) Corolla yellowish; upper leaf surface finely strigose, pilose, lower surface obscurely glandular   2 Salvia potaninii
+ Corolla red, violet, blue and white, or purplish on upper lip; upper leaf surface with hairs of 1 kind only, lower leaf surface conspicuously glandular.   (21)
21 (20) Leaves 3.5-9.5 cm, oblong-hastate or ovate-cordate, apex obtuse; calyx 1.6-1.5 cm   1 Salvia prattii
+ Leaves 7-16 cm, subhastate, apex acute; calyx 1.2-1.5 cm   4 Salvia wardii
22 (18) Corolla straight; upper leaf surface subglabrous or pilose.   (23)
+ Corolla ± curved upward.   (25)
23 (22) Leaves oblong, subglabrous or puberulent on veins, undulate or obscurely crenate; corolla long tubular   41 Salvia sonchifolia
+ Leaves ovate or triangular-ovate, with long hairs.   (24)
24 (23) Leaves ovate or triangular-ovate, pilose; stem spreading pilose   7 Salvia brevilabra
+ Leaves triangular-ovate, adaxially sparsely ± appressed strigose, lower floccose-villous mainly along veins; stem slender, ascending, floccose-villous   11 Salvia paohsingensis
25 (22) Leaves elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or oblong-ovate, rarely obovate or circular, base cuneate-attenuate to rounded or shallowly cordate, rarely subtruncate.   (26)
+ Leaves ovate, broadly ovate, or circular, base cordate or subtruncate, rarely truncate.   (27)
26 (25) Corolla orange, white, dark blue, or purple, tube straight but exserted part curved upward; leaf base rounded to cuneate, rarely shallowly cordate   8 Salvia aerea
+ Corolla purple-brown, chestnut brown, or dark purple, tube double zigzag, narrowly tubular, zigzag basally but exserted part abruptly dilated and curved upward; leaf base rounded to subcordate   33 Salvia castanea
27 (25) Bracts subcircular, broadly ovate, or ovate, apex rounded, acute or obtuse, adaxially glabrous; stem or floral leaves with spreading veins; petioles sometimes winged or sheathed; stem and leaves densely villous.   (28)
+ Bracts ovate or rhombic-ovate, apex abruptly attenuate or short acuminate, adaxially subglabrous; leaves mostly basal, rarely on stem; blades strigose or pubescent, spreading pinnately veined; petioles villous, not winged; stem villous, base covered by brown scales   25 Salvia sikkimensis
28 (27) Corolla white, yellowish, or cream-yellow, sometimes with few gray (except purplish or reddish in S. cyclostegia var. purpurascens), tube cylindric, dilated adaxially, curved upward   12 Salvia cyclostegia
+ Corolla purplish or blue-purple, tube zigzag, tubular toward base, gradually dilated adaxially, curved at an angle above middle   38 Salvia subpalmatinervis
29 (6) Abaxial leaf blade surface densely gray cobwebby-tomentose.   (30)
+ Abaxial leaf blade surface not gray cobwebby-tomentose, with different hairs or subglabrous.   (31)
30 (29) Adaxial leaf blade surface densely pubescent, finely corrugate; calyx spreading villous outside; bracts adaxially slightly pubescent or subglabrous, abaxially densely villous   31 Salvia atropurpurea
+ Adaxial leaf blade surface glabrous, not corrugate; calyx glandular pilose outside; bracts adaxially subglabrous or slightly pilose, abaxially cobwebby-villous   30 Salvia heterochroa
31 (29) Calyx with basal purple-black hairs outside   29 Salvia smithii
+ Calyx without basal purple-black hairs outside.   (32)
32 (31) Corolla straight, not curved.   (33)
+ Corolla ± curved downward.   (36)
33 (32) Calyx 5-7 mm; verticillasters 2-flowered   17 Salvia pauciflora
+ Calyx more than 7 mm; verticillasters few to many flowered.   (34)
34 (33) Calyx 2-lipped to 1/2 its length   36 Salvia bifidocalyx
+ Calyx 2-lipped less than 1/2 its length.   (35)
35 (34) Stems and leaves densely brown pilose; corolla purple or white with purple spots, rarely yellow; leaves coarsely dentate-crenate; bracts ovate, apex cuminate to acute   9 Salvia himmelbaurii
+ Stems and leaves glandular pilose to minutely hispid or subglabrous; corolla yellow, limb tinged purple or purple; leaves coarsely crenate-dentate; bracts lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, apex long acuminate   10 Salvia maximowicziana
36 (32) Calyx tubular to tubular-campanulate; leaf apex acuminate; corolla yellow.   (37)
+ Calyx campanulate; leaf apex not acuminate, rarely apical tooth acute or broadly acuminate (e.g., S. hupehensis).   (38)
37 (36) Abaxial surface of leaf green; calyx tubular, 1.7-2.1 cm; corolla tube hairy annulate inside   13 Salvia cynica
+ Abaxial surface of leaf purple; calyx tubular-campanulate, 1-1.5 cm; corolla tube inside without an hairy annulus or obscurely pilose annulate (S. omeiana var. grandibracteata)   14 Salvia omeiana
38 (36) Leaves broadly ovate to broadly cordate, subequal to equal in size; corolla slightly curved upward, not abruptly dilated adaxially or abaxially beyond calyx.   (39)
+ Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, wider than long; corolla mostly double zigzag, base narrowly cylindric, abruptly dilated adaxially or abaxially beyond calyx.   (42)
39 (38) Corolla purple, 3-4.5 cm; leaf apex rounded, or apical tooth acute or broadly acuminate   28 Salvia hupehensis
+ Corolla yellow, less than 4 cm; leaf apex obtuse to acute.   (40)
40 (39) Calyx 1.7-2.2 cm, broadly tubular-campanulate, greenish   27 Salvia hylocharis
+ Calyx 1-1.6 cm, campanulate.   (41)
41 (40) Leaves cordate to ovate-hastate, 4-18 × 3.5-13.5 cm, irregularly double incised-crenate, mostly on stem; corolla yellow   24 Salvia campanulata
+ Leaves broadly ovate-triangular to subcircular, 8-19 × 4-19 cm, irregularly double crenate or dentate, mostly basal; corolla green-white, sometimes with violet spots   26 Salvia handelii
42 (38) Verticillasters crowded in strobiloid inflorescences when young, covered by subcircular bracts; leaves ovate, 4-15 × 2-10 cm   37 Salvia kiaometiensis
+ Verticillasters not crowded, not in strobiloid inflorescences when young; bracts not subcircular.   (43)
43 (42) Corolla dark purple, purple, to red.   (44)
+ Corolla yellow.   (45)
44 (43) Calyx mouth subtruncate or obscurely 2-lipped; corolla red; leaves ovate, (5-)6-10.5 × (3-)4-8 cm, ± membranous, densely tomentose-villous   34 Salvia atrorubra
+ Calyx conspicuously 2-lipped; corolla purple-blue; leaves ovate to ovate-triangular, (2.5-)3.5-6(-9.2) × (1.5-)3-5(-6) cm, papery, finely pilose   32 Salvia bulleyana
45 (43) Petioles retrorse bristly-hirsute; upper corolla lip upright   40 var. formosana
+ Petioles not retrorse bristly hirsute; upper corolla lip spreading, not upright.   (46)
46 (45) Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, rarely subcircular or elliptic, 3-9 × 2-8 cm, apex obtuse or rounded or acute, base cordate or shallowly hastate, adaxially appressed villous or appressed pubescent, abaxially spreading pilose on veins or densely villous when young   39 Salvia mekongensis
+ Leaves ovate to triangular-ovate, 2-7 × 3.5-5 cm, apex acute or obtuse, base hastate, rarely cordate, adaxially strigose-pilose, abaxially pubescent along veins   35 Salvia flava
47 (1) Abaxial arms of connectives united.   (48)
+ Abaxial arms of connectives separated.   (68)
48 (47) Herbs annual or biennial, much branched; leaves simple; corolla 4-6 mm   64 Salvia plebeia
+ Perennial herbs; unbranched or few branched; leaves simple or odd-pinnate compound; corolla longer.   (49)
49 (48) Apex of upper calyx lip conspicuously 3-toothed, teeth erect; corolla tube without hairy annulus inside   62 Salvia grandifolia
+ Apex of upper calyx lip entire or 3-mucronate; corolla tube with hairy annulus or imperfect hairy annulus inside, rarely without.   (50)
50 (49) Leaves simple; bracts colored.   (51)
+ Leaves compound, mostly ternate or odd-pinnate, rarely simple; bracts green.   (53)
51 (50) Plants wild; corolla tube included   63 Salvia deserta
+ Plants cultivated; corolla tube exserted.   (52)
52 (51) Herbs; leaves hairy, abaxially gray minutely tomentose; corolla campanulate-tubular, 2-2.3 cm, scarlet or blood red   66 Salvia coccinea
+ Subshrubs; leaves glabrous; corolla tubular, 4-4.2 cm, red, purple, to white   65 Salvia splendens
53 (50) Corolla straight, narrowly tubular, slightly longer to 2-3 × longer than calyx.   (54)
+ Corolla tube curved, apex dilated.   (56)
54 (53) Calyx hirsute annulate on throat inside; plants densely white lanate   61 Salvia nanchuanensis
+ Calyx without a hairy annulus inside; plants subglabrous, pubescent, or pilose.   (55)
55 (54) Corolla tube slightly longer than calyx; connectives ca. 0.3 mm   60 Salvia breviconnectivata
+ Corolla tube 2-3 × longer than calyx; connectives 3-4 mm   59 Salvia plectranthoides
56 (53) Middle lobe of lower corolla lip 2-lobulate; lobules irregularly crenate-denticulate apically, fringed, or fringed on 1 side.   (57)
+ Middle lobe of lower corolla lip emarginate or 2-lobulate; lobules never fringed apically or on 1 side.   (58)
57 (56) Middle lobe of lower corolla lip strongly 2-lobulate, Y-shaped; lobules obtriangular, repand-crenate, apex denticulate or fringed; calyx finely shiny-pilose beyond middle inside; anthers finely puberulent; connectives glandular pubescent at joints   58 Salvia meiliensis
+ Middle lobe of lower corolla lip shallowly 2-lobulate, T-shaped; lobules subcircular, fringed on 1 side; calyx white villous annulate on throat inside; anthers and connectives glabrous   57 Salvia honania
58 (56) Corolla less than 1.3 cm.   (59)
+ Corolla more than 1.5 cm.   (60)
59 (58) Calyx tube hirsute annulate inside; stem and leaves white hirsute   54 Salvia prionitis
+ Calyx tube without hairy annulus inside; stem and leaves glabrous or puberulent   55 Salvia cavaleriei
60 (58) Leaves simple, triangular-ovate; corolla 3-4 mm   56 Salvia nubicola
+ Leaves pinnately compound, sometimes with simple.   (61)
61 (60) Corolla tube more than 3 × longer than calyx, spreading or slightly curved upward; limb shorter than exserted part of corolla tube, upper lip erect; leaves ternate compound, leaflets short petiolulate   46 Salvia trijuga
+ Corolla tube included or slightly exserted beyond calyx; limb longer than exserted part of corolla tube, upper lip falcate or galeate, upright, almost at a right angle to lower lip.   (62)
62 (61) Calyx without a hairy annulus inside; petioles and stem spreading white villous   47 Salvia yunnanensis
+ Calyx white hirsute annulate within; petioles and stem villous or glabrescent.   (63)
63 (62) Corolla tube without a conspicuous hairy annulus inside.   (64)
+ Corolla tube with a conspicuous hairy annulus inside.   (65)
64 (63) Leaves and stem retrorse pilose; leaf blade crenulate   52 Salvia paramiltiorrhiza
+ Leaves and stem pubescent; leaf blade serrate   53 Salvia vasta
65 (63) Calyx tubular; corolla tube included or slightly exserted beyond calyx, upper lip slightly arcuate.   (66)
+ Calyx campanulate; corolla tube exserted or curved upward, upper lip conspicuously arcuate.   (67)
66 (65) Calyx base white lamellate inside   50 Salvia dabieshanensis
+ Calyx not white lamellate inside   49 Salvia bowleyana
67 (65) Root scarlet outside; leaflets ovate, elliptic, to broadly lanceolate, pilose, apex acute or obtuse; racemes simple; upper corolla lip 1.2-1.5 cm   48 Salvia miltiorrhiza
+ Root purplish or gray-brown to blackish brown or dark brown outside; leaflets oblong-ovate, oblong-lanceolate, to lanceolate, subglabrous, apex acuminate to acute; racemes compound, sometimes simple; upper corolla lip 0.9-1.1 cm   51 Salvia sinica
68 (47) Calyx with a hairy annulus or imperfect hairy annulus on throat, rarely with 2 rows of hirsute hairs on middle of upper lip inside.   (69)
+ Calyx without a hairy annulus or hairy rows inside.   (73)
69 (68) Plants ca. 11 cm tall; leaves mostly basal, stem leaves 1 pair, leaflets less than 9 mm   75 Salvia adoxoides
+ Plants more than 11 cm tall; leaflets larger.   (70)
70 (69) Calyx with 2 rows of hirsute hairs on middle of upper lip, otherwise apex finely strigose inside; lobes of lower corolla lip similar, subequal or middle lobe larger, circular   74 Salvia chunganensis
+ Calyx throat hirsute inside; lobes of lower corolla lip dissimilar, middle lobe largest, apex emarginate.   (71)
71 (70) Leaves simple or 3-foliolate; leaf or leaflet blade ovate to ovate-elliptic, base rounded to cordate   73 Salvia chinensis
+ Leaves 1-4-pinnately compound.   (72)
72 (71) Leaves 1- or 2-pinnately compound; terminal leaflet lanceolate or rhombic, apex acuminate to caudate-acuminate, base narrowly cuneate; inflorescence rachis glandular pilose or pilose   72 Salvia japonica
+ Leaves 3- or 4-pinnately compound; leaflets narrow elliptic to linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, apex obtuse to acuminate, base attenuate; inflorescence rachis gray puberulent or glandular pilose   76 Salvia filicifolia
73 (68) Corolla tube without a hairy annulus inside.   (74)
+ Corolla tube with a hairy annulus inside.   (77)
74 (73) Stems prostrate or ascending; basal leaves simple, stem leaves ternate compound; apex of upper calyx lip truncate   70 Salvia substolonifera
+ Stems erect; leaves simple or compound; upper calyx lip not truncate.   (75)
75 (74) Leaves simple, oblong, 6.5-7 × 3.2-3.7 cm   83 Salvia weihaiensis
+ Leaves ternate compound or 3-5-foliolate.   (76)
76 (75) Stems spreading villous at base, glandular pilose at apex; mid stem leaves 5-foliolate, terminal leaflet 1.8 × 1.2 cm; bracts lanceolate; upper calyx lip acute   84 Salvia piasezkii
+ Stems densely retrorse puberulent; all leaves 3-foliolate, terminal leaflet 3-4 × 1.5-2 cm; bracts linear; upper calyx lip 3-mucronate   82 Salvia fragarioides
77 (73) Verticillasters secund; middle lobe of lower corolla lip entire or emarginate at apex, ligulate, narrowly elliptic, to oblong.   (78)
+ Verticillasters not secund; middle lobe of lower corolla lip emarginate or 2-lobulate at apex, not ligulate.   (79)
78 (77) Middle lobe of lower corolla lip ligulate, narrowly elliptic, much narrower than lateral lobes; leaves simple, oblong   67 Salvia liguliloba
+ Middle lobe of lower corolla lip semicircular to oblong, apex emarginate, larger than lateral lobes; leaves simple, or ternate compound, simple leaves ovate-lanceolate; leaflets ovate to ovate-lanceolate   68 Salvia chienii
79 (77) Connectives with a subulate lamellate appendage at junction with filament   77 Salvia appendiculata
+ Connectives without appendage.   (80)
80 (79) Adaxial corolla lip curved outward or suberect; leaves 1-3-pinnately compound; lateral leaflets much smaller than terminal leaflet   81 Salvia adiantifolia
+ Adaxial corolla lip erect, plane or folded.   (81)
81 (80) Leaves always simple.   (82)
+ Leaves simple, ternate, or 1- or 2-pinnately compound.   (83)
82 (81) Style sparsely retrorse pubescent   79 Salvia qimenensis
+ Style glabrous   78 Salvia kiangsiensis
83 (81) Leaves 1- or 2-pinnately compound, leaflets irregularly lobulate or coarsely dentate, less than 2.5 cm   80 Salvia hayatae
+ Leaves simple or ternate compound.   (84)
84 (83) Stems sparsely retrorse puberulent or subglabrous; leaves cordate-ovate, 2-4.3 × 1.3-3.6 cm; petioles glabrous or slightly puberulent; inflorescence rachis pubescent   71 Salvia scapiformis
+ Stems densely puberulent, villous; leaves narrowly ovate to obovate, (2.5-)3-13 × (1.5-)2-8 cm; petioles densely villous; inflorescence rachis densely retrorse puberulent or villous   69 Salvia baimaensis

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