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1. Viburnum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 267. 1753.

荚蒾属 jia mi shu

Authors: Qiner Yang & Valéry Malécot

Viburnum glomeratum

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Actinotinus Oliver, p.p.

Shrubs or small trees, deciduous or sometimes evergreen. Branchlets glabrous or pubescent with simple, fascicled or stellate hairs, rarely lepidote hairs; winter buds perulate or naked. Leaves usually opposite, rarely ternate, simple, petiolate, entire, dentate, or 3-5-lobed; stipules usually small or absent. Inflorescence terminal or at apices of short branches with 1- or 2-jugate leaves, compound, corymbose- or paniculate-cymose. Flowers small, actinomorphic, but sometimes marginal flowers of inflorescence enlarged, somewhat zygomorphic and sterile, rarely entire inflorescence consisting of such sterile flowers; bracts and bracteoles usually small and caducous. Calyx small, 5-toothed. Corolla white, rarely reddish, pinkish, or greenish, rotate, campanulate, hypocrateriform, or tubular, 5-lobed. Stamens 5; filaments filiform; anthers medifixed, longitudinally dehiscent, introrse. Ovary semi-inferior, 3-loculed, 1 locule fertile with a single ovule, and 2 sterile; styles short; stigmas slightly capitate to 3-lobed. Fruit a 1-seeded drupe with a ± compressed pyrene, red, purplish, black, or rarely yellow when mature.

About 200 species: mostly in temperate and subtropical regions of Asia and South America; 73 species (45 endemic) in China.

We were unable to check the original material of Viburnum nervosum var. hassianum Loesener (Beih. Bot. Centralbl., Abt. 2, 37: 185. 1920; Shandong: Forstamt 114, 596; Krug 236, 561, 305; Zimmermann 531). The loci typici are temples where the plant was cultivated ("Kap Yatau: angepflantz in der Tempelanlagen von Huayenan und Taitschingkung") and are clearly outside the known distribution of V. nervosum; additionally, the provided description is quite vague ("a typo indumento parciore recedens"), while the phenological information provided ("mit länglichen Früchten im Mai") does not match the known phenology of V. nervosum.

Viburnum wrightii Miquel (Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 267. 1866) was recorded in FRPS (72: 88. 1988) as occurring in Anhui and Zhejiang, but we could not satisfactorily identify this species. Material from Anhui (Feng 1046, LBG - sheet no. 00081428) may belong to V. betulifolium, as well as material from Jiangxi (Xiang 8234, LBG - sheet no. 0029514) and that reported in Fl. Zhejiang (6: 150. 1986).

Viburnum chinense Hooker & Arnott (Bot. Beechey Voy. 190. 1833, not V. sinense Zeyher ex Colla, 1824) is a synonym of Premna integrifolia Linnaeus (Lamiaceae), according to FRPS (72: 104. 1988), which is treated in Fl. China (17:26. 1994) as a synonym of P. serratifolia Linnaeus. Viburnum dielsii H. Léveillé (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9: 443. 1911, not Graebner, 1901) is a synonym of Callicarpa rubella Lindley var. rubella (see Fl. China 17: 13. 1994). Viburnum versatile R. H. Miao, W. B. Liao & Q. Y. Sun (Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 38(6): 129. 1999) apparently belongs to the Rubiaceae (Malécot, Hommes & Pl. 49: 22-27. 2004). Actinotinus was based on a mixed gathering comprising an inflorescence of Viburnum inserted on the terminal bud of a leafy shoot of Aesculus chinensis var. wilsonii (Rehder) Turland & N. H. Xia (see Fl. China 12: 3. 2007).


1 Inflorescence a panicle, sometimes densely clustered, rarely a corymblike panicle, rays opposite, decussate, first node of inflorescence with 2 rays; pyrenes with a deep ventral groove (if first node of panicle-like inflorescence with 4-6 rays and pyrenes with 2 deep dorsal grooves and 1 shallow ventral groove then see V. pyramidatum) (4. V. sect. Solenotinus)   (2)
+ Inflorescence compound and umbel-like, rarely pyramidal panicle consisting of umbels; rays whorled, first node of inflorescence with 4-8 rays, (if first node of corymblike inflorescence with 2 rays and pyrenes with a deep ventral groove then see V. yunnanense and V. corymbiflorum); pyrenes with 1 shallow ventral, or with both ventral and dorsal grooves   (19)
       
2 (1) Corolla rotate, lobes as long as or longer than tube   (3)
+ Corolla funnelform or hypocrateriform, very rarely rotate-campanulate, lobes shorter than tube   (8)
       
3 (2) Leaves papery, abaxially with red-brown glandular dots; inflorescence a corymblike panicle.   38 V. yunnanense
+ Leaves thickly papery to leathery, abaxially without red-brown glandular dots; inflorescence a corymblike or pyramidal panicle   (4)
       
4 (3) Panicle corymblike.   24 V. corymbiflorum
+ Panicle pyramidal   (5)
       
5 (4) Lateral veins at least partly directly ending in teeth; inflorescence axes glabrous or subglabrous; calyx reddish.   28 V. henryi
+ Lateral veins arched and anastomosing near margin, not directly ending in teeth; inflorescence axes glabrous or stellate-pubescent; calyx green   (6)
       
6 (5) Leaves thickly papery; pyrenes ca. 4 × 3.5 mm.   36 V. tengyuehense
+ Leaves leathery; pyrenes 7-8 × 4-5 mm   (7)
       
7 (6) Calyx and corolla glabrous; flowers fragrant; pyrenes ovoid or ovoid-ellipsoid, apex rounded.   30 V. odoratissimum
+ Calyx and corolla, or at least calyx, stellate-pubescent outside; flowers not fragrant; pyrenes ovoid or narrowly ovoid, apex acuminate.   21 V. brachybotryum
       
8 (2) Stamens inserted at or above middle of corolla tube, generally at different heights; flowers opening before leaves; leaves papery   (9)
+ Stamens inserted at apex of corolla tube; flowers opening after leaves; leaves papery to leathery   (10)
       
9 (8) Leaves abaxially slightly pubescent on veins, veins 5-7-jugate, apex acute; inflorescence a panicle, at apices of short branchlets with young leaves; bracts ciliate, subglabrous.   26 V. farreri
+ Leaves abaxially densely pubescent, veins 6-10-jugate, apex acuminate; inflorescence densely clustered at apices of leafless short branchlets; bracts densely silvery sericeous initially.   27 V. grandiflorum
       
10 (8) Leaves abaxially with sparse red-brown glandular dots, orbicular or broadly elliptic.   34 V. subalpinum
+ Leaves abaxially without red-brown glandular dots, broadly elliptic to linear   (11)
       
11 (10) Both surfaces of leaf blade glabrous   (12)
+ Leaf blade abaxially stellate-pubescent in axils of veins at least, sometimes also along veins, adaxially glabrous or sparsely pubescent   (14)
       
12 (11) Leaf margin remotely crenulate except at base, apex acute; corolla tube ca. 3.5 mm.   32 V. omeiense
+ Leaf margin remotely and shallowly serrate above base, apex abruptly narrowed or acuminate to long acuminate, shortly or long caudate; corolla tube 6-8 mm   (13)
       
13 (12) Leaves subleathery to leathery, rarely thickly papery, midvein adaxially obviously raised, petiole purple-red; inflorescence peduncle (1.2-)2.5-7 cm; anthers reddish purple; fruit 6-7 mm.   31 V. oliganthum
+ Leaves papery, midvein adaxially not obviously raised, petiole green; inflorescence peduncle (3.5-)6-9 cm; anthers yellowish white; fruit 8-10 mm.   29 V. longipedunculatum
       
14 (11) Petiole glabrous, 2.5-5 cm; leaf blade 14-20 cm.   37 V. trabeculosum
+ Petiole stellate-pubescent, sparsely stellate-pubescent, or glabrous, less than 2.5 cm; leaf blade 2-14 cm   (15)
       
15 (14) Petiole less than 10 mm   (16)
+ Petiole 10-25 mm   (17)
       
16 (15) Inflorescence 4-5 × 3-4 cm, rays sparsely stellate-pubescent, immediately glabrescent; anthers brownish purple; plant deciduous.   22 V. brevitubum
+ Inflorescence ca. 3 × 2 cm, rays stellate-pubescent; anthers yellowish white; plant evergreen.   35 V. taitoense
       
17 (15) Lateral veins mostly anastomosing near margin; leaves subleathery.   23 V. chingii
+ Lateral veins mostly directly ending in teeth; leaves papery   (18)
       
18 (17) Corolla hypocrateriform, tube 5-6(-8) mm; stamens slightly exceeding corolla tube; flowers fragrant; leaf petiole purple.   25 V. erubescens
+ Corolla rotate-campanulate, tube ca. 3 mm; stamens obviously exceeding corolla tube; flowers not fragrant; leaf petiole green or reddish.   33 V. shweliense
       
19 (1) Winter buds naked; young branchlets and young leaves densely stellate-tomentose, fruit maturing from green, to red then black   (20)
+ Winter buds with 1 or 2 (very rarely 3 or more) pairs of scales (rarely winter bud naked, and if such, buds, young branchlets, abaxial surfaces of leaves, inflorescences, calyces, corollas, and fruit with lepidote scales, see V. punctatum); young branchlets and young leaves stellate-pubescent, bristlelike hairy, or glabrous, fruit maturing from green to red (V. sect. Odontotinus and V. sect. Opulus) or from green to blue-black (V. sect. Tinus and V. sect. Megalotinus p.p.), rarely maturing from green, to red then black (V. sect. Tomentosa and V. sect. Megalotinus p.p.)   (34)
       
20 (19) Stipules 2 subulate, sometimes absent; inflorescence not pedunculate; pyrenes with 1 shallow dorsal groove and 1 deep ventral groove (2. V. sect. Pseudotinus)   (21)
+ Stipules always absent; inflorescence pedunculate; pyrenes usually with 2 dorsal grooves and (1-)3 ventral grooves (1. V. sect. Viburnum)   (22)
       
21 (20) Inflorescence without large sterile flowers, inflorescence rays and calyx tube with small brownish red glands; anthers purple; style exceeding calyx lobes.   14 V. nervosum
+ Inflorescence with large sterile flowers on margin, inflorescence rays and calyx tube without small brownish red glands; anthers yellow; style not exceeding calyx lobes.   15 V. sympodiale
       
22 (20) Shrubs or small trees, evergreen or semievergreen; leaf margin entire or indistinctly dentate, rarely serrulate; lateral veins often anastomosing near margin, not directly ending in teeth   (23)
+ Leaves deciduous in winter, margin often dentate   (27)
       
23 (22) Calyx tube glabrous; leaves 2-6(-8.5) cm, veins adaxially not impressed   (24)
+ Calyx tube ± stellate-pubescent; leaves 5-25 cm   (25)
       
24 (23) Corolla campanulate-funnelform, lobes shorter than tube; old leaves abaxially evenly stellate- pubescent, hairs not totally covering leaf surface; flowers fragrant; leaf lateral veins 3 or 4 pairs.   5 V. congestum
+ Corolla rotate, lobes as long as or slightly longer than tube; stellate hairs totally covering abaxial surfaces of old leaves; flowers not fragrant; leaf lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs.   13 V. utile
       
25 (23) Leaf blade adaxially densely stellate-pubescent, margin serrulate, apex acute to shortly acuminate, rarely obtuse to rounded.   1 V. buddleifolium
+ Leaf blade adaxially glabrous or glabrescent, sparsely stellate-pubescent when young particularly on midvein and lateral veins, margin entire or rarely inconspicuously dentate, apex slightly acute or obtuse   (26)
       
26 (25) Leaves lanceolate-oblong to narrowly oblong, usually 5-15 × 1.5-4.5 cm, thickly papery when old; lateral veins and veinlets adaxially slightly impressed, not obviously rugose; petioles 1-2 cm; corolla outside sparsely stellate-pubescent; flowers on rays of 2nd order.   4 V. chinshanense
+ Leaves ovate-lanceolate to ovate-oblong, usually 8-25 × 2.5-8 cm, leathery; midvein, lateral veins, and veinlets adaxially deeply impressed, strongly rugose; petioles 1.5-4 cm; corolla outside subglabrous; flowers on rays of 3rd order.   10 V. rhytidophyllum
       
27 (22) Lateral veins directly ending in teeth, not anastomosing, or at least mostly so   (28)
+ Lateral veins anastomosing near margin, not directly ending in teeth, or at least mostly so   (29)
       
28 (27) Calyx tube glabrous; corolla lobes shorter than tube; stamens shorter than corolla; style exceeding calyx lobes; leaf margin serrulate or entire.   6 V. cotinifolium
+ Calyx tube stellate-tomentose; corolla lobes nearly as long as or less than 2 × as long as tube; stamens slightly exceeding corolla lobes; style not exceeding calyx lobes; leaf margin dentate.   7 V. glomeratum
       
29 (27) Inflorescence with large sterile radiant flowers.   8 V. macrocephalum
+ Inflorescence with only fertile flowers, without large sterile radiant flowers   (30)
       
30 (29) Corolla rotate, tube shorter than lobes   (31)
+ Corolla tubular-campanulate, rarely hypocrateriform, tube obviously longer than lobes   (32)
       
31 (30) Branchlets of previous year brownish gray; leaves apically obtuse or rounded, sometimes emarginate or slightly acute; flowers mostly on rays of 3rd and 4th orders, flowers appearing with leaves; pyrenes dorsally raised or indistinctly 2-grooved.   11 V. schensianum
+ Branchlets of previous year yellow-white; leaves apically usually acute, rarely slightly obtuse; flowers mostly on rays of 2nd order, flowers appearing after leaves; pyrenes with 2 dorsal grooves.   2 V. burejaeticum
       
32 (30) Corolla hypocrateriform.   3 V. carlesii
+ Corolla tubular-campanulate   (33)
       
33 (32) Leaves broadly ovate or elliptic to rarely suborbicular, 2.5-5(-6) cm, apex acute or obtuse; petioles 4-10 mm; flowers usually on rays of 1st order; corolla yellow-white.   9 V. mongolicum
+ Leaves ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, 7-15(-18) cm, apex acuminate to narrowly caudate; petioles 1-4 cm; flowers on rays from 3rd to 4th order; corolla purple outside.   12 V. urceolatum
       
34 (19) Pyrenes globose, ovoid, or ellipsoid, with or without a shallow and narrow ventral groove, absolutely not compressed; fruit blue-black or turning from blue to black; leaves evergreen, glabrous or subglabrous (3. V. sect. Tinus)   (35)
+ Pyrenes not as above; if ellipsoid then pyrenes with a deep ventral groove wide in upper part yet narrow in lower part; fruit red when mature, or turning from red to black, rarely yellow   (39)
       
35 (34) Leaves pinnativeined.   16 V. atrocyaneum
+ Leaves triplinerved   (36)
       
36 (35) Leaves apically obtuse to rounded, 2-6(-7.5) cm, margin entire; inflorescence peduncle ca. 1 cm.   20 V. triplinerve
+ Leaves apically acute to acuminate, margin entire or remotely serrate; inflorescence peduncle 1-3.5(-4) cm   (37)
       
37 (36) Corolla white; old leaves thickly leathery; veinlets adaxially deeply impressed, obviously rugose; anthers reddish black.   18 V. davidii
+ Corolla greenish white or yellowish green; old leaves leathery; veinlets adaxially sometimes slightly impressed, not obviously rugose; anthers yellow   (38)
       
38 (37) Shrubs 1-2 m tall; inflorescence 2-7 cm in diam., glabrous; leaves 3-9(-11) cm, margin usually remotely serrate.   19 V. propinquum
+ Shrubs or small trees 3-6 m tall; inflorescence 6-15 cm in diam.; leaves 6-13(-18) cm, margin entire or occasionally remotely serrate toward apex.   17 V. cinnamomifolium
       
39 (34) Winter buds surrounded by 2 pairs of connate scales; leaves 3-5-lobed; petiolar apex or leaf base adaxially with 1-4 conspicuous glands (8. V. sect. Opulus)   (40)
+ Winter buds with 1 or 2 pairs of separate scales; glands absent at petiolar apex or leaf base adaxially, but abaxially sometimes with circular glands on both sides of midvein near base   (41)
       
40 (39) Inflorescence without large sterile flowers; leaves 3-5-lobed; petioles not longer than 2.5 cm.   72 V. koreanum
+ Inflorescence with large sterile flowers on margin; leaves usually 3-lobed or those in upper part of branchlets undivided; petioles 1-5 cm.   73 V. opulus
       
41 (39) Leaves palmately 3-5-lobed, palmatinerved (7. V. sect. Odontotinus, p.p.).   62 V. kansuense
+ Leaves not divided or 2- or 3-lobed, mostly pinnativeined, sometimes 2 lateral veins at base appearing triplinerved   (42)
       
42 (41) Inflorescence with large sterile flowers; fruit maturing from green to red then black; pyrenes with 1 ventral groove broad in upper part yet narrow in lower part (5. V. sect. Tomentosa)   (43)
+ Inflorescence without large sterile flowers; fruit maturing from green to red, rarely to black (if so see V. cylindricum, V. lutescens, and V. punctatum); pyrenes usually compressed, usually with shallow ventral and dorsal grooves   (44)
       
43 (42) Leaves with more than 10 pairs of lateral veins; peduncle with 6-8 rays; inflorescences at apices of short lateral branches.   40 V. plicatum
+ Leaves with 5-7(-9) pairs of lateral veins; peduncle usually with 5 rays; inflorescence terminal.   39 V. hanceanum
       
44 (42) Shrubs or small trees evergreen, rarely deciduous (if so see V. ternatum); stipules usually absent (but present in V. ternatum and V. inopinatum); winter buds with a pair of separate scales, very rarely naked (if so see V. punctatum) (6. V. sect. Megalotinus)   (45)
+ Shrubs, rarely small trees, deciduous, rarely evergreen; stipules sometimes present; winter buds with 2 pairs of separate scales (7. V. sect. Odontotinus, p.p.)   (53)
       
45 (44) Winter buds naked; winter buds, abaxial leaf surfaces, inflorescences, and outside of corollas with lepidote scales.   47 V. punctatum
+ Winter buds 2-perulate; plant not lepidote   (46)
       
46 (45) Lateral veins totally or at least partly ending in teeth; inflorescence at apices of lateral short branchlets with 1-jugate leaves   (47)
+ Lateral veins arched and anastomosing near margin, not directly ending in teeth; inflorescences at apices of branchlets with 1 to several pairs of leaves   (48)
       
47 (46) Young branchlets, petioles, and inflorescences yellow-brown stellate-tomentose; first node of inflorescence with 6 or 7 rays.   41 V. amplifolium
+ Plant glabrous throughout; first node of inflorescence with 4 or 5 rays.   44 V. laterale
       
48 (46) Corolla campanulate; lobes short, erect; leaves abaxially with reddish or yellow glandular dots.   42 V. cylindricum
+ Corolla rotate   (49)
       
49 (48) Leaf margin serrate, or sometimes serrate except at base, base not glandular spotted; stamens slightly exceeding corolla, filaments not folded in bud   (50)
+ Leaf margins entire or sometimes slightly dentate at apex, base often glandular spotted on midvein; stamens obviously exceeding corolla, filaments folded in bud   (51)
       
50 (49) Branchlets and abaxial leaf surfaces sparsely stellate-pubescent, glabrescent; plant elsewhere subglabrous; leaves leathery; inflorescence a compound umbel-like or panicle-like cyme, fragrant.   46 V. lutescens
+ Branchlets, abaxial leaf surfaces, petioles, peduncles, pedicels, and calyces yellow- brown stellate-tomentose; leaves papery; inflorescence a pyramidal panicle composed of 2-4 layers of umbels, not fragrant.   48 V. pyramidatum
       
51 (49) Leaves often whorled, 3 per whorl; stipules 2, persistent; inflorescence peduncle nearly absent.   49 V. ternatum
+ Leaves opposite; stipules absent or 2, caducous; inflorescence peduncle (1-)1.5-3 cm, rarely absent   (52)
       
52 (51) Leaves pubescent or only so on veins, papery; calyx tube glabrous.   45 V. leiocarpum
+ Leaves thickly stellate-tomentose, leathery; calyx tube stellate-tomentose.   43 V. inopinatum
       
53 (44) Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, 9-19(-27) × 1-4 cm, irregularly or remotely serrate, sometimes subentire; pyrenes compressed, subquadrangular or slightly rectangular   (54)
+ Leaf blade orbicular, ovate to elliptic-oblong, obovate, or rhombic-ovate, rarely broadly oblong-lanceolate, generally less than 10 cm, margin dentate, serrate, denticulate, or entire, if more than 10 cm then more than 4 cm wide and with margin dentate, or less than 4 cm wide and with margin entire (see V. integrifolium); pyrenes obovoid, ovoid, ellipsoid-ovoid, or ellipsoid   (55)
       
54 (53) Young branchlets, leaves, petioles, and inflorescence axes glabrous; leaves with ca. 6 pairs of lateral veins.   71 V. squamulosum
+ Young branchlets, veins on abaxial leaf surfaces, petioles, and inflorescence axes stellate-pubescent; leaves with 7-12 pairs of lateral veins.   63 V. lancifolium
       
55 (53) Leaf margin entire, possibly remotely serrate or remotely dentate above middle part   (56)
+ Leaf margin dentate, serrate, or denticulate, sometimes only so above 1/3 from base   (60)
       
56 (55) Shrubs deciduous; inflorescence peduncle more than 2 cm   (57)
+ Shrubs evergreen; inflorescence peduncle less than 2 cm or nearly absent   (58)
       
57 (56) Leaves glabrous on both sides, margin entire, apex abruptly narrowed and long caudate, petiole green; style not exceeding calyx lobes.   61 V. integrifolium
+ Leaves stellate-pubescent at least abaxially, margin subentire, apex acute to shortly acuminate, petiole reddish purple; style exceeding calyx lobes.   56 V. foetidum
       
58 (56) Leaves abaxially with both golden yellow glandular dots and red-brown to black-brown glandular dots, adaxially usually not nigrescent when dry.   51 V. chunii
+ Leaves with black or brown glandular dots, nigrescent when dry   (59)
       
59 (58) Calyx tube stellate-pubescent; leaves subleathery; fruit acute at apex.   59 V. hainanense
+ Calyx tube glabrous; leaves leathery; fruit rounded at apex.   69 V. sempervirens
       
60 (55) Leaves with 2-4 pairs of lateral veins, basal pair often appearing triplinerved   (61)
+ Leaves with more than 5 pairs of pinnate lateral veins   (62)
       
61 (60) Leaf blade 0.8-3 cm, apex rounded or slightly acute; inflorescence ca. 2.5 cm in diam., peduncles ca. 5 mm; pyrenes with 1 ventral groove.   68 V. parvifolium
+ Leaf blade 4-10 cm, apex acute to shortly acuminate; inflorescence 5-8 cm in diam., peduncles 2-5 cm; pyrenes with 3 ventral grooves.   56 V. foetidum
       
62 (60) Corolla outside glabrous or subglabrous, very rarely hairy in bud but later glabrescent (cf. V. betulifolium)   (63)
+ Corolla sparsely or densely stellate-pubescent   (68)
       
63 (62) Inflorescence or infructescence nodding; leaves nigrescent or slightly pale black when dry.   70 V. setigerum
+ Inflorescence or infructescence not nodding; leaves not nigrescent when dry   (64)
       
64 (63) Inflorescence peduncles (5-)6-10(-12.5) cm.   60 V. hengshanicum
+ Inflorescence peduncles shorter than 5 cm   (65)
       
65 (64) Petioles more than 1 cm; inflorescence 4-12 cm in diam   (66)
+ Petiole less than 15 mm, inflorescence less than 4 cm in diam   (67)
       
66 (65) Stipules caducous, or absent; first node of inflorescence usually with 5 rays; flowers on rays of 2nd and 3rd orders; fruit dark purple-red, maturing black, ellipsoid; branchlet of current year grayish black.   66 V. melanocarpum
+ Stipules persistent, often present; first node of inflorescence usually with 7 rays; flowers on rays from 3rd to 5th orders; fruit red, globose; branchlet of current year purple-brown.   50 V. betulifolium
       
67 (65) Stipules absent, petiole 5-15 mm, leaf blade ovate, apex caudate.   58 V. formosanum
+ Stipules present or absent, petiole 3-5 mm, leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, ovate- oblong, narrowly ovate, elliptic, or oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate or acute.   55 V. erosum
       
68 (62) Leaves abaxially with yellow or yellowish or nearly colorless transparent glandular dots   (69)
+ Leaves abaxially without glandular dots   (70)
       
69 (68) Petiole 1-3 cm, stellate pubescent or simple hairs less than 1 mm; calyx tube stellate-pubescent, flowers fragrant; plant 2.5-5 m tall.   54 V. dilatatum
+ Petiole 0.5-1 cm, densely yellowish brown bristlelike hairy; calyx tube with simple hairs, flowers not fragrant; plant 1-2 m tall.   52 V. corylifolium
       
70 (68) Leaves adaxially with transparent or dispersed red-brown glandular dots   (71)
+ Leaves adaxially without glandular dots   (72)
       
71 (70) Leaf blade abaxially densely stellate-pubescent, adaxially with dispersed red- brown glandular dots; inflorescence peduncle 1-3.5 cm or very rarely nearly absent; pyrenes compressed, ovoid, ca. 6 × 4 mm, with 1 dorsal groove and 2 ventral grooves.   57 V. fordiae
+ Leaf blade abaxially sparsely stellate-pubescent or forklike pubescent, adaxially with transparent glandular dots; inflorescence peduncle usually very short or nearly absent, very rarely to 1.5 cm; pyrenes very compressed, ovoid, 4-5 × 3-4 mm, with 3 shallow dorsal grooves and 2 shallow ventral grooves.   65 V. luzonicum
       
72 (70) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous except midvein and lateral veins yellow-brown bristlelike hairy; lateral veins 8-12-jugate.   53 V. dalzielii
+ Leaf blade abaxially stellate-pubescent, or only so in vein axils; lateral veins 5-9-jugate   (73)
       
73 (72) Styles very short, shorter than calyx lobes; corolla lobes nearly as long as tube; stamens shorter than corolla; pyrenes 4-6 mm; leaf margin serrate.   67 V. mullaha
+ Styles exceeding calyx lobes; corolla lobes longer than tube; stamens equaling or slightly exceeding corolla; pyrenes 6-7.5 mm; leaf margin crenate.   64 V. longiradiatum

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