40. Lithocarpus corneus (Loureiro) Rehder in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 3569. 1917.
烟斗柯 yan dou ke
Trees usually less than 15 m tall. Branchlets light tawny, dark gray, or silver-gray, glabrous or pubescent, sparsely lenticellate; lenticels raised. Leaves usually congested at apex of branches; petiole 0.5-4.5 cm; leaf blade (5-)10-15 × 2-4.5 cm, papery to leathery, concolorous, with ± translucent, minute (visible under hand lens) scalelike glands, base cuneate to subrounded and symmetric or oblique, margin dentate, shallowly undulate, or rarely entire, apex acuminate to acute; secondary veins 9-26 on each side of midvein, ending in teeth; tertiary veins abaxially slender, evident, subparallel. Male inflorescences often with female flowers borne at base of rachis; Female inflorescences less than 10 cm; cupules in clusters of ca. 3 or sometimes solitary. Infructescences 5-7; rachis 3-4 mm thick. Cupule cupular to subglobose, 2.2-4.5 × 2.5-5.5 cm, enclosing ca. 1/2 of nut, wall (1-)2-3 mm thick, woody, and basally thickened; bracts triangular to rhomboid, center and margin ridged or fused with cupule and ± united into concentric rings. Nut subglobose to turbinate, rarely glabrous, apex rounded, flat, or slightly concave, wall ± horny and usually thicker than wall of cupule; scar covering 1/2 to most of nut, convex. Cotyledons 4-8-lobed. Fl. almost all year around but mainly May-Jul, fr. maturing on 1-year-old branchlets.
Broad-leaved evergreen forests, frequent on sunny slopes and in dry places, coastal regions; below 1000 m. S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, S Guizhou, Hainan, S Hunan, Taiwan, EC and SE Yunnan [NE Vietnam]
A widespread and variable species. A critical review of the pattern of variation within Lithocarpus corneus may show that the acceptance of most of the varieties below is unjustified.