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Fagaceae Dumortier

壳斗科 qiao dou ke

Authors: Chengjiu Huang, Yongtian Zhang & Bruce Bartholomew

Quercus semecarpifolia

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Trees or rarely shrubs, monoecious, evergreen or deciduous. Stipules usually early deciduous. Leaves alternate, sometimes false-whorled in Cyclobalanopsis. Inflorescences unisexual or androgynous with female cupules at the base of an otherwise male inflorescence. Male inflorescences a pendulous head or erect or pendulous catkin, sometimes branched; flowers in dense cymules. Male flower: sepals 4-6(-9), scalelike, connate or distinct; petals absent; filaments filiform; anthers dorsifixed or versatile, opening by longitudinal slits; with or without a rudimentary pistil. Female inflorescences of 1-7 or more flowers subtended individually or collectively by a cupule formed from numerous fused bracts, arranged individually or in small groups along an axis or at base of an androgynous inflorescence or on a separate axis. Female flower: perianth 1-7 or more; pistil 1; ovary inferior, 3-6(-9)-loculed; style and carpels as many as locules; placentation axile; ovules 2 per locule. Fruit a nut. Seed usually solitary by abortion (but may be more than 1 in Castanea, Castanopsis, Fagus, and Formanodendron), without endosperm; embryo large.

Seven to 12 genera (depending on interpretation) and 900-1000 species: worldwide except for tropical and S Africa; seven genera and 294 species (163 endemic, at least three introduced) in China.

Many species are important timber trees. Nuts of Fagus, Castanea, and of most Castanopsis species are edible, and oil is extracted from nuts of Fagus. Nuts of most species of this family contain copious amounts of water soluble tannin. Members of the Fagaceae are the main element of both broad-leaved evergreen and mixed mesophytic forests from 500-3200 m.

Huang Chengchiu, Chang Yongtian, Hsu Yongchun & Jen Hsienwei. 1998. Fagaceae. In: Chun Woonyong & Huang Chengchiu, eds. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 22: 1-332.


1 Male inflorescences heads, pendulous; female flowers (1 or)2; germination epigeal   1 Fagus
+ Male inflorescences elongated catkins, erect or pendulous; female flowers solitary or in spikes; germination hypogeal (epigeal in Formanodendron).   (2)
       
2 (1) Male inflorescences erect; anthers ca. 0.3 mm; stigma punctiform or a minute terminal pore.   (3)
+ Male inflorescences pendulous; anthers 0.5-1 mm; stigma capitate or dilated.   (5)
       
3 (2) Leaves deciduous; ovary 6(-9)-loculed   2 Castanea
+ Leaves evergreen; ovary 3(-6)-loculed.   (4)
       
4 (3) Cupules solitary on rachis, mostly bilaterally symmetric with abaxial and adaxial sides differing in shape and/or spines (± radially symmetric in C. calathiformis. C. cerebrina. C. uraiana, and C. sclerophylla)   3 Castanopsis
+ Cupules in cymes on rachis (often some cupules abort but still evident at base of developed cupules, except in L. fenzelianus, radially symmetric   4 Lithocarpus
       
5 (2) Cupules splitting into 3-5 valves; nuts angular, winged   5 Formanodendron
+ Cupules indehiscent; nuts circular in cross section, wingless.   (6)
       
6 (5) Bracts of cupule not united, arranged spirally   6 Quercus
+ Bracts of cupule united, arranged in concentric rings   7 Cyclobalanopsis

Lower Taxa


 

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