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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 22 | Poaceae

11. Poaceae Tribe POEAE

早熟禾族 zao shu he zu

Authors: Zhen-lan Wu, Sheng-lian Lu, Liang Liu, Guanghua Zhu, Shou-liang Chen, Xiang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Robert J. Soreng, Susan G. Aiken, Nikolai N. Tzvelev & Marina V. Olonova

Annual or perennial. Leaf blades linear to filiform; ligule membranous. Inflorescence usually an open or contracted panicle, rarely spikelike or a single raceme with tough rachis (fragile in Parapholis). Spikelets all alike or rarely dimorphic with mixed fertile and sterile spikelets, florets (1 or)2 to many with uppermost reduced, usually laterally compressed, disarticulating below each floret; glumes persistent, usually shorter than lemmas, membranous or rarely leathery; floret callus glabrous or with woolly hairs; lemmas membranous to leathery, (3–)5–7(–13)-veined, glabrous or infrequently hairy, apex entire or denticulate, awnless or with a straight or curved awn from apex; palea subequaling lemma. Lodicules 2, hyaline. Stamens (1–)3. Ovary sometimes hairy. Caryopsis mostly ellipsoid; hilum linear or round. Leaf anatomy: non-Kranz; microhairs absent. Chromosomes large. x = 7.

About 50 genera and 1200 species: temperate and cold regions of the world, also on tropical mountains; 16 genera and 212 species (54 endemic, at least nine introduced) in China.

This is a large tribe of predominantly temperate grasses, usually with a paniculate inflorescence, simple, several-flowered spikelets with the florets exserted from the glumes, and 5- or more veined lemmas.

1 Inflorescence a single terminal spikelike raceme; spikelets sessile   (2)
+ Inflorescence an open, contracted or dense panicle, occasionally sparse and subracemose; spikelets pedicellate   (3)
2 (1) Spikelets with several florets; rachis tough.   61 Lolium
+ Spikelets with one floret; rachis fracturing below each spikelet.   74 Parapholis
3 (1) Fertile spikelets accompanied by pectinate sterile spikelets.   63 Cynosurus
+ Fertile spikelets not accompanied by sterile spikelets   (4)
4 (3) Plants annual   (5)
+ Plants perennial   (9)
5 (4) Lemmas awned.   60 Vulpia
+ Lemmas awnless   (6)
6 (5) Pedicels stout; panicle 1-sided, with short branches or reduced to a compact raceme; lowest rachilla internode enlarged   (7)
+ Pedicels slender; panicle not as above; lowest rachilla internode not enlarged   (8)
7 (6) Panicle with very short, simple branches; glumes 3–9-veined; lemmas keeled throughout.   72 Sclerochloa
+ Panicle with short, often branched branches; glumes 1–3-veined; lemmas keeled in upper half.   73 Pseudosclerochloa
8 (6) Spikelets plumply ovate to rotund; pedicels filiform; lemmas orbicular to oblate.   65 Briza
+ Spikelets elliptic to ovate; pedicels slender; lemmas lanceolate to ovate.   66 Poa
9 (4) Lemmas rounded on back, at least toward base   (10)
+ Lemmas keeled throughout   (13)
10 (9) Spikelets with 1 floret; floret indurated and glossy at maturity.   69 Milium
+ Spikelets with more than 1 floret; florets herbaceous or leathery   (11)
11 (10) Plant a robust aquatic with long spongy rhizomes; floret callus stiffly bearded.   62 Scolochloa
+ Plant not as above; floret callus glabrous (lemma base sometimes pubescent)   (12)
12 (11) Lemma apex firm, acute or awned; hilum linear.   59 Festuca
+ Lemma apex thinly scarious to hyaline, ± obtuse, awnless; hilum round to oval.   64 Puccinellia
13 (9) Lemmas orbicular to oblate, margins broad, membranous, appressed to lemma above.   65 Briza
+ Lemmas narrower, margins less distinct, often inrolled   (14)
14 (13) Palea keels smooth   (15)
+ Palea keels scabrid to ciliolate   (16)
15 (14) Lemmas indistinctly 3–5-veined below, almost veinless in upper half, apex obtuse to acute.   70 Colpodium
+ Lemmas prominently 3-veined, apex broadly obtuse to truncate, erose.   71 Catabrosa
16 (14) Lemmas herbaceous or membranous with hyaline margins, apex awnless.   66 Poa
+ Lemmas thinly leathery, apex acute to briefly awned   (17)
17 (16) Spikelets in dense 1-sided fascicles at the ends of the panicle branches; florets 2–5.   67 Dactylis
+ Spikelets evenly dispersed; floret 1.   68 Aniselytron

  • List of lower taxa


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