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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 16 | Gentianaceae

4. Gentiana Sect. Frigida Kusnezow, Mélanges Biol. Bull. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg. 13: 61. 1893.

高山龙胆组 gao shan long dan zu

Perennials. Roots long, rarely short, ± fleshy. Rhizomes stout, rarely slender, fleshy, sometimes short but conspicuous. Stems branching sympodially, with 1 to few basal rosettes and 1 to few flowering stems. Stems sheathed basally by black membranous remnants of old leaf bases. Base of basal leaves long connate. Seeds coated with a membranous lamella forming spongy, complex hexagonal pits.

Nineteen species: North America, Asia, Europe; 17 species in China.


1 Corolla 3-6 cm.   (2)
+ Corolla 1.5-3.5 cm.   (9)
       
2 (1) Corollas almost white, pale yellow, or yellowish green, with dark blue spots and/or stripes.   (3)
+ Corollas pale to dark blue (basal part of tube may be whitish or yellowish).   (4)
       
3 (2) Usually only lowermost axillary flowers with true pedicels or all flowers sessile above bracts; pedicels generally less than 1 cm   69 Gentiana algida
+ All or most flowers distinctly pedicellate; basal pedicels often over 4 cm   73 Gentiana purdomii
       
4 (2) Calyx lobes 2-8.5 mm.   (5)
+ Calyx lobes 1-2(-3) mm.   (6)
       
5 (4) Flowering stems ± decumbent, 3-10(-17) cm; flowers sessile or subsessile; stamens inserted at basal part of corolla tube   71 Gentiana nubigena
+ Flowering stems erect, 15-35 cm; flowers pedicellate; stamens inserted near middle of corolla tube   74 Gentiana trichotoma
       
6 (4) Stems densely papillate; calyx tube not split   67 Gentiana striolata
+ Stems glabrous to subglabrous; calyx tube split down 1 side or not.   (7)
       
7 (6) Upper stem leaves scarcely reduced; petiole of basal leaves 4-8 cm; calyx lobes straight   68 Gentiana omeiensis
+ Upper stem leaves distinctly reduced; petiole of basal leaves 1-3 cm; calyx lobes spreading or reflexed.   (8)
       
8 (7) Basal leaves linear-lanceolate to linear-elliptic; corolla blue   59 Gentiana wilsonii
+ Basal leaves oblong, narrowly elliptic, or oblanceolate; corolla dark blue   61 Gentiana atuntsiensis
       
9 (1) Corollas almost white, pale yellow, or yellowish green, with dark blue spots and/or stripes.   (10)
+ Corollas pale to dark blue (basal part of tube may be yellowish or whitish).   (14)
       
10 (9) Flowers distinctly pedicellate; calyx lobes erect.   (11)
+ Flowers sessile (axillary cymules may be pedunculate below bracts) or lowest axillary flowers rarely on pedicels to 1 cm; calyx lobes spreading or reflexed.   (12)
       
11 (10) Basal leaves oblong to spatulate; corolla obconic   72 Gentiana erectosepala
+ Basal leaves linear, linear-elliptic, or rarely oblong; corolla tubular-campanulate to funnelform   73 Gentiana purdomii
       
12 (10) Stems papillate, most so toward apex   62 Gentiana handeliana
+ Stems glabrous.   (13)
       
13 (12) Calyx tube split on 1 side, lobes 1-1.5 mm   63 Gentiana phyllopoda
+ Calyx tube not split, lobes 3.5-5.5 mm   64 Gentiana apiata
       
14 (9) Flowers solitary; corolla 1.5-2 cm   70 Gentiana himalayaensis
+ Flowers in narrow panicles, cymes, whorls, or clusters; corolla 2-3.5 cm.   (15)
       
15 (14) Flowers in cymes; gynophore 2.1-2.7 cm; calyx lobes 3-6 mm   75 Gentiana laxiflora
+ Flowers in narrow panicles, whorls, or clusters; gynophore 0.8-2 cm; calyx lobes 1-3 mm.   (16)
       
16 (15) Flowers in narrow panicles; all but uppermost flowers consistently pedicellate   65 Gentiana microdonta
+ Flowers in whorls or clusters; flowers sessile or lowest occasionally short pedicellate.   (17)
       
17 (16) Basal leaves oblong, narrowly elliptic, or oblanceolate; corolla dark blue.   (18)
+ Basal leaves linear-lanceolate or linear-elliptic; corolla pale blue.   (19)
       
18 (17) Corolla tubular, lobes 1.5-2 mm   60 Gentiana subuliformis
+ Corolla funnelform, lobes 3.5-5 mm   61 Gentiana atuntsiensis
       
19 (17) Calyx lobes straight   66 Gentiana wasenensis
+ Calyx lobes spreading to reflexed   59 Gentiana wilsonii

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