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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

4. Saussurea Subg. Saussurea

风毛菊亚属 feng mao ju ya shu

Perennial herbs or rarely subshrubs, cauliferous or stemless. Leaves undivided or pinnately divided. Uppermost stem leaves herbaceous, green, not densely lanate. Capitula usually in a corymbiform or paniculiform synflorescence or sometimes solitary. Phyllaries usually without an appendage but sometimes with a green herbaceous appendage, apex obtuse, acute, acuminate, or caudate and usually appressed or sometimes reflexed. Receptacle usually densely bristly, rarely paleate, papillose, or naked. Corolla usually glabrous, rarely gland-dotted. Anther tails ± lacerate, lanate, or entire. Achene cylindric, oblong, or fusiform, obtusely 4- or 5-angled, smooth or wrinkled, usually glabrous, rarely gland-dotted or sericeous, usually without a conspicuous apical crown. Pappus dirty white, straw-colored, or yellowish brown, usually in 2 rows; outer bristles scabrid or rarely plumose, rarely lacking.

About 333 species: Asia, C, E, and N Europe, W North America; 217 species (152 endemic) in China.

1 Subshrubs, repeatedly virgately branched from base.   1 S. sect. Jurineiformes
+ Perennial herbs or rarely subshrubs, never virgately branched   (2)
2 (1) Phyllaries straw-colored, with a black or brown membranous margin; receptacle with paleae as long as or longer than inner phyllaries; pappus bristles in 1 row.   2 S. sect. Jacea
+ Phyllaries straw-colored, greenish, yellow, brown, purple, or black, without a black or brown membranous margin; receptacle with bristles shorter than inner phyllaries or naked; pappus bristles usually in 2 rows   (3)
3 (2) Plants stemless or substemless and sometimes forming dense cushions; leaves undivided, usually less than 2 cm wide, if wider then margin dentate or serrate; capitula usually solitary, rarely few or numerous.   3 S. sect. Gymnocline
+ Plants usually with well-developed stem, if stemless then leaves either pinnately lobed to pinnately divided or leaf blade more than 2 cm wide and with an entire margin; capitula in a corymbiform, paniculiform, or racemiform synflorescence or solitary   (4)
4 (3) Roots and caudex fibrously split; capitula usually numerous, in a corymbiform or paniculiform synflorescence; involucre cylindric, tubular, or narrowly campanulate, usually less than 1 cm in diam.   4 S. sect. Laguranthera
+ Roots and caudex not fibrously split; capitula solitary to numerous; involucre usually campanulate, more than 1 cm in diam   (5)
5 (4) Anther tails cottony or lanate, rarely lacerate; capitula mostly solitary and usually more than 1.5 cm in diam   (6)
+ Anther tails ciliate or lacerate, not cottony or lanate; capitula usually numerous and less than 1.5 cm in diam   (7)
6 (5) Leaf blade undivided, narrowly linear and grasslike, or narrowly oblong, narrowly ovate-elliptic to narrowly obovate-elliptic.   5 S. sect. Lagurostemon
+ Leaf blade usually pinnately lobed to pinnately divided, if rarely undivided then not narrowly linear and grasslike but elliptic, obovate, or oblong.   6 S. sect. Strictae
7 (5) Plants scapiform or subscapiform; basal leaves rosulate; stem leaves much reduced.   7 S. sect. Rosulascentes
+ Plants not scapiform; basal leaves not rosulate (often withered at anthesis); stem leaves usually well developed.   8 S. sect. Saussurea

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