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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae | Saussurea

8. Saussurea sect. Saussurea

风毛菊组 feng mao ju zu

Herbs, perennial, often rhizomatous, usually with well-developed stems, rarely caespitose. Stems solitary, rarely few, ascending to erect, simple to branched, usually leafy. Leaves petiolate or sessile; leaf blade very varied, mostly undivided, sometimes pinnately lobed to pinnatisect, base auriculate, cordate, rounded, truncate, or cuneate, margin entire of dentate, apex rounded to acuminate. Capitula usually several to numerous, in a lax or dense corymbiform, racemiform, or paniculiform synflorescence or sometimes solitary. Involucre cylindric, narrowly to broadly campanulate, or obconic, medium-sized. Phyllary margin entire or rarely pectinate. Receptacle with subulate bristles. Corolla pink, purple, red, or rarely white, usually glabrous. Anther tails laciniate. Achene smooth, sometimes ribbed, glabrous. Pappus usually in 2 rows, rarely outer row lacking.

About 160 species: mainly in high mountains and boreal to arctic regions of Asia, Europe, and W North America; 83 species (60 endemic) in China.


1 Phyllary margins pectinate, with 2-5 pairs of teeth   (2)
+ Phyllary margins entire or subentire   (3)
       
2 (1) Involucre 5-8 mm in diam.; phyllaries with 2 or 3 pairs of teeth; leaves with 8-17 pairs of lobes, lobes oblong to narrowly elliptic-linear.   207 S. odontolepis
+ Involucre 8-12 mm in diam.; phyllaries with 3-5 pairs of teeth; leaves with 4-9 pairs of lobes, lobes ovate to narrowly ovate-elliptic.   208 S. pectinata
       
3 (1) Basal and lower stem leaves with a shallowly or deeply cordate base   (4)
+ Basal and lower leaves with an attenuate, cuneate, rounded, truncate, or auriculate-amplexicaul base   (30)
       
4 (3) Leaf blade adaxially green, abaxially grayish white or grayish green and densely tomentose, arachnoid, or lanate   (5)
+ Leaf blade green, concolorous or abaxially paler green, abaxially glabrous or glabrescent   (13)
       
5 (4) Basal and lower stem leaves narrowly ovate-elliptic, 0.7-2.5 cm wide.   226 S. graciliformis
+ Basal and lower stem leaves 2-17 cm wide   (6)
       
6 (5) Lower stem leaves triangular-ovate, base cordate or hastate   (7)
+ Lower stem leaves ovate, ovate-elliptic, or reniform   (8)
       
7 (6) Leaf blade leathery, adaxially pale green or grayish green, sparsely arachnoid floccose, glabrescent; involucre narrowly campanulate, 4-7 mm in diam.   225 S. firma
+ Leaf blade papery, adaxially white or grayish white, densely tomentose; involucre campanulate, 6-12 mm in diam.   227 S. nivea
       
8 (6) Apex of phyllaries without a mucro   (9)
+ Apex of phyllaries with a black mucro   (10)
       
9 (8) Stem much branched; capitula in paniculiform synflorescence; involucre cylindric, 0.7-0.9 cm in diam.   233 S. pinetorum
+ Stem apically few branched; capitula in racemiform or lax corymbiform synflorescence; involucre campanulate-obconic, 1.2-1.5 cm in diam.   235 S. chetchozensis
       
10 (8) Stem densely leafy; capitula numerous, in paniculiform to lax corymbiform synflorescence.   229 S. vestitiformis
+ Stem with few leaves; capitula few or numerous, in clustered corymbiform synflorescence   (11)
       
11 (10) Stem with brown multicellular articulate hairs.   230 S. baroniana
+ Stem white arachnoid or lanate   (12)
       
12 (11) Leaf blade 2.5-6 × 2-5 cm; stem slender; involucre obconic to cylindric, 5-6 mm in diam.   231 S. flaccida
+ Leaf blade 3-11 × 7-10(-17) cm; stem stout; involucre campanulate, 6-10 mm in diam.   232 S. acromelaena
       
13 (4) Capitulum usually solitary, terminal on stem, sometimes 2-5, solitary on end of branches; involucre 2-2.5 cm in diam.   209 S. populifolia
+ Capitula usually numerous or few, rarely solitary; involucre usually less than 2 cm in diam   (14)
       
14 (13) Apical part of phyllaries either herbaceous or leathery and saber-shaped, usually patent or reflexed   (15)
+ Apical part of phyllaries neither herbaceous nor leathery and saber-shaped, erect, usually appressed   (21)
       
15 (14) Apical part of phyllaries leathery, saber-shaped and reflexed, apex long acuminate   (16)
+ Apical part of phyllaries herbaceous, not saber-shaped, reflexed, patent, or erect, apex shortly acuminate   (18)
       
16 (15) Leaf blade undivided but margin dentate.   212 S. subtriangulata
+ Leaf blade pinnately lobed or pinnately dentate   (17)
       
17 (16) Capitula numerous, shortly pedunculate; involucre narrowly campanulate, 5-7 mm in diam.   210 S. mongolica
+ Capitula few, long pedunculate; involucre obconic, 10-15 mm in diam.   211 S. sinuata
       
18 (15) Leaf blade hastate or narrowly cordate, longer than wide   (19)
+ Leaf blade cordate or broadly cordate, ± as long as wide   (20)
       
19 (18) Capitula 6-12, in paniculiform to corymbiform synflorescence; involucre narrowly campanulate, 0.7-1 cm in diam.   215 S. stricta
+ Capitula 1-3, long pedunculate, in corymbiform synflorescence; involucre campanulate, 1-2 cm in diam.   216 S. hylophila
       
20 (18) Lower and middle stem leaves broadly cordate, 8-20 × 7-18 cm; stem glabrous.   213 S. cordifolia
+ Lower and middle stem leaves ovate-cordate, 5-11 × 5-11 cm; stem with sparse articulate hairs but glabrescent.   214 S. oligantha
       
21 (14) Involucre ca. 5 mm in diam.; corolla ca. 8 mm; inner pappus bristles 6-7 mm.   221 S. tenerifolia
+ Involucre 5-15 mm in diam.; corolla 10-16 mm; inner pappus bristles 7-13 mm   (22)
       
22 (21) Involucre campanulate to globose, 10-15 mm in diam   (23)
+ Involucre tubular to campanulate, 5-10 mm in diam   (25)
       
23 (22) Phyllaries long acuminate.   223 S. hwangshanensis
+ Phyllaries acute to obtuse and sometimes mucronate   (24)
       
24 (23) Leaf blade sparsely strigose on both surfaces.   222 S. grandifolia
+ Leaf blade abaxially thinly arachnoid tomentose but glabrescent, adaxially sparsely strigose.   219 S. bullockii
       
25 (22) Leaf blade leathery, abaxially grayish green and sparsely arachnoid floccose but glabrescent.   225 S. firma
+ Leaf blade papery, abaxially pale green and subglabrous   (26)
       
26 (25) Involucre campanulate, 8-10 mm in diam   (27)
+ Involucre tubular to narrowly campanulate, 5-8 mm in diam   (28)
       
27 (26) Phyllaries appressed, not patent or recurved.   220 S. pseudobullockii
+ Phyllaries apically patent to recurved.   234 S. paleata
       
28 (26) Plants 30-40 cm tall; stem simple or apically few branched; capitula 3-5, subsessile in a clustered corymbiform synflorescence.   218 S. triangulata
+ Plants 50-120 cm tall; stem much branched; capitula more numerous, shortly or long pedunculate   (29)
       
29 (28) Capitula shortly pedunculate, clustered at end of branches in a corymbiform synflorescence.   224 S. ussuriensis
+ Capitula long pedunculate, in a paniculiform synflorescence.   217 S. manshurica
       
30 (3) Leaf blade base auriculate and amplexicaul   (31)
+ Leaf blade base not auriculate or amplexicaul   (37)
       
31 (30) Capitula ca. 5, sessile, clustered in a hemispheric synflorescence.   236 S. lyratifolia
+ Capitula either few and long pedunculate or numerous and shortly pedunculate, in a corymbiform synflorescence   (32)
       
32 (31) Capitula 1-4, large, long pedunculate, not in a clustered corymbiform synflorescence; involucre 1.2-2 cm in diam   (33)
+ Capitula numerous, small or medium-sized, shortly pedunculate, in a clustered corymbiform synflorescence; involucre 0.4-1 cm in diam   (34)
       
33 (32) Leaf blade ovate to narrowly ovate-elliptic, 1.5-5 cm wide.   237 S. neofranchetii
+ Leaf blade narrowly oblong to linear, 1-1.5 cm wide.   238 S. caudata
       
34 (32) Leaf blade base inconspicuously auriculate   (35)
+ Leaf blade base broadly auriculate and amplexicaul   (36)
       
35 (34) Stem winged; leaf blade abaxially grayish green or grayish white, densely arachnoid tomentose.   239 S. leclerei
+ Stem wingless; leaf blade abaxially green, puberulent only on veins.   240 S. merinoi
       
36 (34) All leaves sessile; leaf blade elliptic, 8-23 × 2.5-6 cm.   241 S. macrota
+ Lower stem leaves petiolate; leaf blade narrowly ovate-elliptic, 6-9 × 2.5-4 cm.   242 S. semiamplexicaulis
       
37 (30) Leaf blade lyrate or lyrate pinnatilobed; petiole with 1 or several pairs of lobes   (38)
+ Leaf blade undivided or pinnately lobed but not lyrate; petiole without lobes   (50)
       
38 (37) Receptacle without bristles.   178 S. porphyroleuca (see S. sect. Strictae)
+ Receptacle with bristles   (39)
       
39 (38) Leaf blade decurrent on stem; stem winged   (40)
+ Leaf blade not decurrent on stem; stem wingless   (45)
       
40 (39) Leaf blade glabrous or subglabrous on both surfaces   (41)
+ Leaf blade adaxially green and glabrous or pubescent, abaxially grayish white and arachnoid or lanate   (42)
       
41 (40) Outer phyllaries acute to obtuse.   243 S. peduncularis
+ Outer phyllaries apically with a 3-4 mm subulate awn.   244 S. frondosa
       
42 (40) Involucre campanulate, 1-1.7 cm in diam.   245 S. eriocephala
+ Involucre ovoid or campanulate, 0.5-0.8 cm in diam   (43)
       
43 (42) Plants 5-15 cm tall.   261 S. kiraisiensis
+ Plants 20-90 cm tall   (44)
       
44 (43) Stem wings entire; leaf blade ovate, undivided.   228 S. dimorphaea
+ Stem wings sinuate-dentate; leaf blade narrowly ovate-elliptic, runcinate-pinnately lobed.   246 S. dzeurensis
       
45 (39) Leaf blade adaxially green and glabrous, abaxially grayish white or grayish green and arachnoid tomentose   (46)
+ Leaf blade green, ± concolorous, glabrous or subglabrous   (48)
       
46 (45) Terminal lobe of leaf blade ovate, base cuneate to subtruncate.   131 S. flexuosa (see S. sect. Laguranthera)
+ Terminal lobe of leaf blade ovate-triangular or ovate, base conspicuously cordate   (47)
       
47 (46) Stem with few reduced leaves; basal leaves numerous, in a basal rosette.   198 S. alatipes (see S. sect. Rosulascentes)
+ Stem with many well-developed leaves; basal leaves few, usually withered at anthesis.   250 S. lampsanifolia
       
48 (45) Capitulum solitary, terminal on stem, or 2-4; phyllaries long acuminate, reflexed.   249 S. morifolia
+ Capitula numerous, in a racemiform or corymbiform synflorescence; phyllaries not reflexed   (49)
       
49 (48) Involucre hemispheric, 2-2.5 cm in diam.   247 S. carduiformis
+ Involucre narrowly campanulate, 0.4-0.9 cm in diam.   248 S. mutabilis
       
50 (37) Leaf blade pinnately lobed or coarsely pinnately dentate   (51)
+ Leaf blade undivided, margin entire, denticulate, or shallowly sinuate-dentate   (52)
       
51 (50) Plants 15-35 cm tall; capitulum solitary.   286 S. grosseserrata
+ Plants 40-100 cm tall; capitula 3-5 in a clustered corymbiform synflorescence.   289 S. recurvata
       
52 (50) Leaf blade adaxially green, smooth, and glabrous or scabrous and strigose, abaxially white, grayish white, or grayish green and densely tomentose or thinly arachnoid   (53)
+ Leaf blade green, concolorous, glabrous, sparsely pubescent, or glandular hairy   (69)
       
53 (52) Plants stemless or shortly stemmed, 3-8 cm tall; capitulum solitary; involucre 2-2.5 cm in diam.   272 S. woodiana
+ Plants always with a developed stems, more than 10 cm tall; capitula usually several; involucre less than 1.5 cm in diam   (54)
       
54 (53) Capitula 1-6   (55)
+ Capitula numerous, in a racemiform, paniculiform, or corymbiform synflorescence   (59)
       
55 (54) Stem and leaf petioles wingless   (56)
+ Stem and leaf petioles distinctly winged   (57)
       
56 (55) Plants 40-65 cm tall; involucre 0.8-1 cm in diam.   270 S. iodoleuca
+ Plants 10-30 cm tall; involucre 1-1.2 cm in diam.   275 S. alaschanica
       
57 (55) Plants 30-40 cm tall; leaf blade ovate to elliptic.   271 S. smithiana
+ Plants 10-35 cm tall; leaf blade broadly ovate to orbicular   (58)
       
58 (57) Involucre narrowly campanulate to cylindric, 5-7 mm in diam.   273 S. komarnitzkii
+ Involucre ovoid to obconic, ca. 13 mm in diam.   274 S. rotundifolia
       
59 (54) Stem wingless   (60)
+ Stem winged   (64)
       
60 (59) Leaf blade orbicular to broadly ovate, abaxially white and densely tomentose.   281 S. bullata
+ Leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or oblong to narrowly elliptic, abaxially grayish green and arachnoid   (61)
       
61 (60) Plants to 1.2 m tall; capitula in a paniculiform to lax corymbiform synflorescence.   285 S. undulata
+ Plants to 70 cm tall; capitula in a clustered corymbiform synflorescence   (62)
       
62 (61) Leaf blade ovate to elliptic, adaxially grayish green, and arachnoid floccose.   283 S. elliptica
+ Leaf blade narrowly ovate-elliptic to narrowly elliptic, adaxially green and glabrous   (63)
       
63 (62) Plants 30-70 cm tall; leaves and phyllaries usually without glands.   282 S. alpina
+ Plants 10-20 cm tall; leaves and phyllaries abaxially densely gland-dotted.   284 S. pseudoalpina
       
64 (59) Capitula 4-10, in a lax racemiform synflorescence.   276 S. polygonifolia
+ Capitula usually more numerous, in a clustered or lax corymbiform or paniculiform synflorescence   (65)
       
65 (64) Stem stout, much branched; leaf blade oblong to narrowly elliptic, less than 2 cm wide.   278 S. platypoda
+ Stem slender, simple or apically few branched; leaf blade ovate to narrowly elliptic, usually more than 2 cm wide   (66)
       
66 (65) Middle stem leaves 2-4 cm wide, apex acuminate   (67)
+ Middle stem leaves 3-7.5 cm wide, apex acute to obtuse   (68)
       
67 (66) Middle stem leaves narrowly elliptic to linear, 10-20 cm.   280 S. amurensis
+ Middle stem leaves ovate to elliptic, 5-8 cm.   228 S. dimorphaea
       
68 (66) Phyllaries yellowish green, apically purplish, densely arachnoid pubescent; outer phyllaries acuminate but without a black mucro; leaf blade apex obtuse to subacute.   277 S. vestita
+ Phyllaries straw-colored, brownish, or purple, pubescent or arachnoid; outer phyllaries with a long black mucro; leaf blade apex acute.   279 S. cauloptera
       
69 (52) Capitulum solitary, terminal on stem   (70)
+ Capitula 2-6 or numerous, in a corymbiform synflorescence   (77)
       
70 (69) Leaf blade margin coarsely sinuate-dentate   (71)
+ Leaf blade margin entire or inconspicuously denticulate   (72)
       
71 (70) Phyllaries not reflexed; leaf blade obovate-elliptic, apex rounded to acute and mucronate.   286 S. grosseserrata
+ Phyllaries reflexed; leaf blade ovate, narrowly ovate-elliptic, or triangular, apex acuminate.   288 S. tunglingensis
       
72 (70) Plants stemless or with a developed stem; involucre 1.5-4 cm in diam.   252 S. superba
+ Plants always with a developed stem; involucre 1-2 cm in diam   (73)
       
73 (72) Leaf blade oblong to broadly linear, margin sinuate.   287 S. pratensis
+ Leaf blade narrowly obovate, narrowly ovate, or narrowly elliptic, margin entire or denticulate   (74)
       
74 (73) Leaf blade narrowly oblong to linear, glabrous; phyllaries reflexed.   257 S. micradenia
+ Leaf blade narrowly ovate-elliptic to narrowly elliptic, sparsely villous; phyllaries not reflexed   (75)
       
75 (74) Involucre obconic; phyllaries glabrous; leaf blade margin denticulate.   254 S. acutisquama
+ Involucre campanulate; phyllaries villous; leaf blade margin entire and densely ciliate   (76)
       
76 (75) Leaf blade base oblique and rounded or cuneate, apex obtuse to acute; phyllaries densely villous; corolla 1.8-2.4 cm.   251 S. hieracioides
+ Leaf blade base attenuate, apex acute to acuminate; phyllaries sparsely villous; corolla 1.2-1.4 cm.   253 S. tatsienensis
       
77 (69) Capitula 2-6   (78)
+ Capitula numerous   (83)
       
78 (77) Leaf blade margin retrorsely dentate or serrate.   258 S. retroserrata
+ Leaf blade margin entire or dentate to serrate but not retrorsely so   (79)
       
79 (78) Leaf blade broadly ovate to narrowly elliptic, more than 3 cm wide, margin dentate to serrate   (80)
+ Leaf blade narrowly ovate, narrowly elliptic, narrowly oblong, or linear, 0.8-2.5 cm wide, margin entire or denticulate   (81)
       
80 (79) Middle and upper stem leaves narrowly ovate to narrowly elliptic.   256 S. hultenii
+ Middle and upper stem leaves broadly ovate to ovate-elliptic.   255 S. euodonta
       
81 (79) Leaf blade narrowly oblong to linear, glabrous; phyllaries reflexed.   257 S. micradenia
+ Leaf blade narrowly ovate-elliptic to narrowly elliptic, sparsely villous; phyllaries not reflexed   (82)
       
82 (81) Involucre campanulate; phyllaries villous; leaf blade margin entire and densely ciliate.   253 S. tatsienensis
+ Involucre obconic; phyllaries glabrous; leaf blade margin denticulate.   254 S. acutisquama
       
83 (77) Phyllaries apically saber-shaped   (84)
+ Phyllaries apically not saber-shaped   (86)
       
84 (83) Stem and petioles wingless.   262 S. epilobioides
+ Stem and petioles narrowly winged   (85)
       
85 (84) Leaf blade margin denticulate; involucre 5-6 mm in diam.   259 S. acuminata
+ Leaf blade margin dentate; involucre ca. 10 mm in diam.   263 S. umbrosa
       
86 (83) Stem and petioles wingless; leaf blade triangular-ovate to ovate.   268 S. dielsiana
+ Stem and petioles distinctly winged; leaf blade obovate to elliptic or narrowly so   (87)
       
87 (86) Leaf blade abaxially glandular; involucre ca. 3 mm in diam.; phyllaries acuminate.   260 S. glandulosa
+ Leaf blade abaxially not glandular; involucre 5-8 mm in diam.; phyllaries acute to obtuse   (88)
       
88 (87) Leaf blade 3-9 cm wide   (89)
+ Leaf blade 1-4 cm wide   (90)
       
89 (88) Leaf blade green, concolorous; lower stem leaves with base cordate and apex acute to acuminate.   267 S. latifolia
+ Leaf blade adaxially green, abaxially glaucous-green; lower stem leaves with base attenuate and apex very long acuminate.   269 S. neoserrata
       
90 (88) Outer phyllaries with apex acuminate.   266 S. candolleana
+ Outer phyllaries with apex obtuse or subacute   (91)
       
91 (90) Leaf blade of middle stem leaves ovate, base abruptly narrowed into a winged petiole to 5.5 cm; leaf blade adaxially smooth; phyllaries usually yellowish green.   264 S. hemsleyi
+ Leaf blade of middle stem leaves narrowly elliptic, base attenuate into a petiole to 1(-2) cm; leaf blade adaxially scabrid; phyllaries usually dark purple.   265 S. parviflora

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