Calymperaceae Kindb., Genera of European and North American Bryineae (Mosses). 1897.
Plants small to robust, tufted to gregarious, usually growing on trees and logs, sometimes on rocks or soil. Stems mostly erect, but typically repent and with ascending-erect branches in Mitthyridium and rarely in Syrrhopodon, stems very short in some taxa and plants then with stemless appearance. Rhizoids mostly scanty, brown to red or dark red or purple. Leaves crowded, sheathing at base, axillary hairs mostly inconspicuous; leaf margins mostly thickened, often toothed, bordered with elongate hyaline cells in Mitthyridium and some Syrrhopodon, thickened border often enclosing stereid cells; costa strong, convex on back, often papillose or spinose on one or both sides, ending near apex to excurrent, frequently with clusters of gemmae at tip; cells of upper laminae green, mostly isodiametric, smooth to papillose; lower laminae including conspicuous (typically) fields of enlarged, internally and externally porose, hyaline cells (cancellinae); intramarginal files of differentiated cells (teniolae) present in leaves of some Calymperes and (rarely) Syrrhopodon; gemmiferous leaves often (sometimes strongly) differentiated from vegetative leaves; gemmae common, uniseriate, fusiform to clavate to filamentous, borne exclusively on leaves. Primarily dioicous, rarely monoicous. Perigonia axillary, bud-like; perichaetia terminal but soon overtopped. Perichaetial leaves reduced but otherwise not or only somewhat differentiated. Setae straight, mostly elongate but very short in some Syrrhopodon; capsules cylindric; annuli lacking; opercula rostrate; peristome lacking, or present and of 16 jointed smooth or papillose teeth, often reduced and imperfect. Calyptrae cucullate and deciduous, or enveloping the capsule, persistent, and opening by vertical slits, rarely very small and mitrate. Spores small, mostly roughened.
Thirty-one taxa of the Calymperaceae are known from China, including 11 taxa of Calymperes, 2 of Mitthyridium, and 18 of Syrrhopodon.
The Calymperaceae are closely allied with the Pottiaceae; no single character or combination of characters uniformly separates the two families (Reese & Zander 1988).
Only the genera traditionally assigned to the Calymperaceae—Calymperes, Mitthyridium (syn. Thyridium), and Syrrhopodon—are included in this treatment of the Chinese Calymperaceae. Mosses belonging to subgenus Pseudocalymperes (syn. Calymperopsis), which is sometimes recognized at the generic level, are here included in Syrrhopodon.
The most comprehensive information on Chinese Calymperaceae is summarized in P.-C. Chen (1963), P.-J. Lin (1984, 1996), P.-J. Lin and Reese (1988), Redfearn et al. (1996), Reese and P.-J. Lin (1991), and L. Zhang et al. (1999). Additional references germane to the Calymperaceae of China include Akiyama and Reese (1993), Eddy (1990), Menzel and Schultze-Motel (1990), and Reese and Stone (1995).
Other Calymperaceae reported from China
1. Calymperes longifolium Mitt., a synonym of Syrrhopodon loreus (Sande Lac.) Reese, was listed for Botel Tobago, Taiwan, by C.-C. Chuang (1973), but no material of this species under either name has been seen from China.
2. Calymperopsis yunfuensis P.-C. Wu, J.-X. Luo & F.-S. Men was described from fossil material (Wu et al. 1976). We have not seen this material and are unable to evaluate its affinities.
3. Syrrhopodon sinii Reim., Hedwigia 71: 42. 1931. China. Prov. Kwangsi: Yao-Shan (mit Corybas sp. gesammelt)–Summer 1928.–S: S. Sin und K. K. Wang n. 1908d. No material under this name has been seen for this report. The type description states that this moss is similar to S. japonicus but has shorter cancellinae. Lin (1984) suggested that S. sinii was probably the same as S. japonicus.
4. Syrrhopodon tristichus Nees and Thyridium undulatum (Dozy & Molk.) Fleisch. were attributed to China by P.-C. Chen (1963) but according to P.-J. Lin (1984), the material upon which the report was based was incorrectly determined.