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Moss China | Family List | Moss China V. 2 | Calymperaceae

3. Syrrhopodon Schwaegr., Sp. Musc. Frond., Suppl. 2(1):110. 1824.


Plants slender to rather robust, in dense tufts. Stems mostly erect; central strand absent. Leaves oblong to linear, often bordered with elongate hyaline cells, border usually thickened; teniolae or teniolae-like features lacking or rarely present; leaf cells isodiametric, smooth to papillose; gemmae fusiform or filamentous; gemmiferous leaves sometimes differentiated from vegetative leaves. Gemma receptacles rarely developed. Setae elongate or rarely very short; capsules mostly exserted but rarely immersed; peristome present or lacking, often imperfectly developed. Calyptrae deciduous, mostly cucullate, rarely mitrate.

Syrrhopodon is a large and diverse genus with a broader ecological range than either Calymperes or Mitthyridium. One species of the genus, S. gardneri, has been collected at elevations up to 3000 m, in Nepal, but most species occur at much lower elevations. Syrrhopodon differs from Mitthyridium primarily in having erect rather than repent stems. In Mitthyridium the leaves have a unistratose border of hyaline cells; in species of Syrrhopodon with leaves bordered by hyaline cells, the border is commonly more than one cell thick. Eighteen taxa of Syrrhopodon occur in China.

1 Margins at leaf shoulders regularly dentate, serrate, or ciliate on at least some leaves   (2)
+ Margins at leaf shoulders mostly entire but occasionally and irregularly with 1 to several small teeth   (11)
2 (1) Leaves lacking border of hyaline cells   (3)
+ Leaves bordered distally with elongate hyaline cells   (5)
3 (2) Leaf shoulders ciliate   1 Syrrhopodon armatispinosus
+ Leaf shoulders only dentate-serrate   (4)
4 (3) Rhizoids dark-red; distal cells of cancellinae sharply demarcated from adjacent green cells of upper laminae, and cancellinae thus distinct; cells of upper laminae pluripapillose abaxially and adaxially   5 Syrrhopodon gardneri
+ Rhizoids brown; distal cells of cancellinae gradually blending with adjacent green cells of upper laminae and cancellinae thus indistinct; cells of upper laminae smooth abaxially, bulging-mammillose adaxially   9 Syrrhopodon japonicus
5 (2) Cells of upper laminae smooth or unipapillose abaxially   (6)
+ Cells of upper laminae pluripapillose abaxially   (8)
6 (5) Cells of upper laminae clearly unipapillose; intramarginal rows of abaxially spinose cells lacking   2 Syrrhopodon armatus
+ Cells of upper laminae mostly smooth or minutely papillose but some cells abaxially spinose in intramarginal rows (best seen in cross section)   (7)
7 (6) Costa on most leaves remotely spinose adaxially; cilia on leaf shoulders mostly 30-60 µm long   3 Syrrhopodon chenii
+ Costa on most leaves abundantly spinose adaxially; cilia on leaf shoulders mostly 70-90 µm long   7 Syrrhopodon hongkongensis
8 (5) Leaves with large, forward-pointing peg-like papillae distally on abaxial surface; costa papillose-spinose abaxially   15 Syrrhopodon spiculosus
+ Leaves lacking large peg-like papillae distally on dorsal surface; costa smooth abaxially   (9)
9 (8) Leaf bases narrow, scarcely wider than upper laminae; cells of upper laminae pellucid; leaf shoulders with small delicate teeth   17 Syrrhopodon trachyphyllus
+ Leaf bases broader than upper laminae; cells of upper laminae obscure; leaf shoulders with large, often spreading-recurved teeth or cilia   (10)
10 (9) Leaves erect and only slightly contorted when dry; upper laminae straight when wet, several times longer than lower laminae   6 Syrrhopodon hainanensis
+ Leaves tightly curled-contorted when dry; upper laminae usually falcate when wet, only to ca. twice as long as lower laminae   11 Syrrhopodon orientalis
11 (1) Upper laminae very short, 1/2 or less length of lower laminae   8 Syrrhopodon involutus
+ Upper laminae much longer than lower laminae   (12)
12 (11) Leaves erect and straight when dry   10 Syrrhopodon muelleri
+ Leaves variously contorted when dry   (13)
13 (12) Stems elongate, often more or less repent and with erect ascending branches; leaves flexed, with prominent shoulders; upper laminae tubulose wet and dry; plants and leaf bases often red-brown or golden   4 Syrrhopodon flammeonervis
+ Stems short and erect, or plants with stemless appearance; leaves neither flexed nor with prominent shoulders; upper laminae plane to canaliculate when moist but not tubulose; plants green   (14)
14 (13) Cells of upper laminae smooth or unipapillose abaxially; gemmae filamentous, borne adaxially at midleaf   12 Syrrhopodon parasiticus
+ Cells of upper laminae pluripapillose abaxially; gemmae various   (15)
15 (14) Distal abaxial cells of upper laminae with large distally-pointing peg-like multifid papillae   15 Syrrhopodon spiculosus
+ Distal abaxial cells of upper laminae lacking peg-like papillae   (16)
16 (15) Gemmae borne adaxially at midleaf or lower   (17)
+ Gemmae borne adaxially only on leaf tip   (18)
17 (16) Gemmae filamentous, borne at midleaf, cancellinae acute distally   14 Syrrhopodon semiliber
+ Gemmae short, often curved, usually borne at base of upper laminae just distal to cancellinae; cancellinae rounded distally   16 Syrrhopodon tjibodensis
18 (16) Leaves oblong, 1-2 mm long   17 Syrrhopodon trachyphyllus
+ Leaves linear to acuminate, 2-5 mm long   (19)
19 (18) Cells of upper laminae pellucid, with bulging multifid papillae; leaves acuminate; leaf shoulders occasionally bearing small (rarely large and cilia-like) sharp teeth   13b var. tosaensis
+ Cells of upper laminae obscure, pluripapillose with small low papillae; leaf shoulders lacking teeth   13a var. prolifer

  • List of lower taxa


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