1. Syrrhopodon armatispinosus P.-J. Lin, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica. 17(1):93. 1979.
Plants small, ca. 1 cm high, glaucous-green, wiry, in tufts and thin tangled sods. Stems very short, with stemless appearance; rhizoids bright brownish red, conspicuous. Leaves nearly straight to loosely curled when dry, straight and ascending when wet, narrowly linear above slightly broader base, typically somewhat constricted above base, 5–11 mm long, axillary hairs inconspicuous; costa ending abruptly just below apex, usually grossly spinose abaxially and adaxially for much of its length, often showing accessory guide cells in section; cells of upper laminae pellucid, isodiametric, smooth abaxially and adaxially or occasionally with remote low blunt or sharp papillae abaxially; margins of upper laminae thickened from near shoulders to apex, appearing in section as 2–3 wings, each wing with two rows of paired teeth; margins of lower laminae typically strongly ciliate with ascending to divaricate or recurved cilia; cancellinae narrowly rounded distally. Gemmae often infrequent, inconspicuous, adaxial on tip of costa. Autoicous?; infrequently fruiting. Setae 7 mm long; capsules 1 mm long, short-cylindric, with few stomata proximally; opercula sharply and slightly obliquely long-rostrate, 0.9 mm long; peristome of low, blunt, segmented, imperfect teeth, to 36 µm tall, teeth strongly irregularly ornamented with papillose ridges inside and outside. Calyptrae 0.9 mm long, papillose-roughened distally. Spores green, 26–29 µm diameter, finely roughened, each with a large conspicuous spherical inclusion, some precociously germinating at mouth of capsules.
Type. China: Hainan, Le-dong Co., P. C. Chen et al. 220 (holotype PE; isotype IBSC). Paratypes. Hainan, Le-dong Co., P. C. Chen et al. 119 (PE), P. C. Chen et al. 161, 543 (IBSC, LAF, MO, PE).
Chinese specimens examined: HAINAN: Le-dong Co., Reese 17735 (LAF, MO); Ling-shui Co., Reese et al. 17902 (IBSC, LAF, MO). See also type specimens cited above.
Habitat: of very restricted occurrence but locally common and abundant on tree trunks (especially palms), palm leaf bases, decaying logs, rarely on soil, in forests at moderate elevations; 550–1070 m; Distribution: endemic to China.
Syrrhopodon armatispinosus is a handsome and distinctive species, endemic to Hainan Island. It is very similar at first glance to its probable vicariad, S. perarmatus Broth. & Watts, which is restricted to western Melanesia. Syrrhopodon perarmatus differs from S. armatispinosus, among other ways, in having stereids in the thickened leaf margins, which are circular in section and lack wings.
Illustrations: Pl. 94, figs. 1–8.