5. Syrrhopodon gardneri (Hook.) Schwaegr., Species Muscorum Frondosorum, Supplementum Secundum. 1:110. 1824; Calymperes gardneri Hook., Musci. Exot. 2: 146. 1819.
Plants medium-sized, to 3 cm high, dark green, in thin sods or gregarious. Stems evident; rhizoids dark red, often conspicuous and clothing proximal portion of stems. Leaves closely curled or only slightly contorted when dry, spreading when wet, linear above broader base, 3–5 mm long, axillary hairs inconspicuous; cells of upper laminae isodiametric to rectangular, pluripapillose abaxially, bulging-pluripapillose adaxially; margins of upper laminae thickened and coarsely toothed in two rows, margins of lower laminae coarsely toothed with at least some of the teeth spreading-divaricate; cancellinae ending in acute angles distally, their distal cells sharply demarcated from adjacent green cells of upper laminae. Gemmae frequent, on adaxial tip of costa. Sporophytes not seen.
Type. Nepal: Gardner, comm., Wallich s.n. (holotype BM).
Chinese specimens examined: GUANGDONG: Shi-xing Co., P.-J. Lin & Y.-Y. Yang 4944 (IBSC, MO); Zhao-qing Co., P.-J. Lin & Z.-H. Li 211 (IBSC, LAF, SYS). HAINAN: Chang-jiang Co., P.-J. Lin & Z.-H. Li 273 (IBSC, LAF, SYS); Le-dong Co., Redfearn et al. 35936 (IBSC, LAF, MO); Ling-shui Co., Reese et al. 17941 (IBSC, LAF, MO); Qiong-zhong Co., P.-J. Lin et al. 2057 (IBSC, LAF, PE). HONG KONG: Mt. Kadoorie, P.-J. Lin et al. 104 (IBSC). JIANGXI: Yi-feng Co., Wu-ling Shan (Mt.), L.-S. Chen s.n. (IBSC, LAF). TAIWAN: Chai-yi Co., Iwatsuki & Sharp 25 (NICH); Hsueh Shan (Mt.), Iwatsuki et al. 1263 p.p. (IBSC, LAF, NICH, TENN). Ilan Co., Chuang & Schofield 243 (UBC); Nan-tou Co., T.-Y. Chiang 29199 (MO). YUNNAN: Jing-hong Co., Redfearn et al. 33918 (IBSC, LAF, MO, PE); Meng-la Co., Redfearn et al. 33879 (IBSC, LAF, MO, PE).
Habitat: widespread, sometimes common and abundant; on tree trunks and bases, branches, decaying logs, rock, rarely on soil, in forests at moderate to high elevations; 700–2100 m; Distribution: pantropical.
Syrrhopodon gardneri is frequent but rarely abundant in China, and the collections are mostly of small plants. This moss is easy to recognize by its usually conspicuous dark-red rhizoids that often permit instant identification, in as much as no other Chinese Syrrhopodon with the aspect of S. gardneri has such rhizoids. The only other Chinese Syrrhopodon with which S. gardneri can be confused is S. japonicus, but that species has brown rhizoids and the distal cells of its cancellinae merge gradually into the adjacent green cells of the upper laminae, rather than being sharply distinct as in S. gardneri. Also, the cells of the upper laminae in S. gardneri are pluripapillose abaxially and adaxially, but those of S. japonicus are smooth abaxially and only bulging-mammillose adaxially. The two species often occur in the same habitat and may share the same substrate, as in the collection (Iwatsuki et al. 1263) from Taiwan, cited above, in which both species occur.
Illustrations: Reese & P.-J. Lin 1991 (figs. 59–63).