4. Syrrhopodon flammeonervis C. Müll., Linnaea. 38:557. 1874.
Plants large, in dense springy turfs, glossy-green distally, often red-gold proximally. Stems elongate, commonly repent and with ascending branches as in Mitthyridium, rhizoids glossy dark-red, inconspicuous. Leaves involute and sinuous-ascending when dry, bases conspicuously clasping stem, straight, involute and ascending when wet, upper laminae characteristically flexed at shoulders, linear-acuminate above the conspicuously broader base, 3.5–5.0 mm long, axillary hairs inconspicuous; costa and other parts of leaves often yellow-gold or red; cells of upper laminae very thick-walled, isodiametric to oblong, smooth abaxially or with low, simple or multifid papillae, adaxially bulging or mammillose or papillose with tall simple or variously divided papillae; margins of upper laminae strongly bordered with hyaline cells, entire except sometimes denticulate at apex, margins of lower laminae bordered with hyaline cells, entire or sometimes denticulate at shoulders; cancellinae rounded distally. Gemmae inconspicuous, short, clavate, papillose, adaxial on slightly expanded tips of gemmiferous leaves. Sporophytes unknown.
Type. The Philippines: Luzon, Wallis s.n., 1871 (isotypes FH, H).
Chinese specimens examined: GUANGXI: Long-sheng Co., P.-C. Wu & Y.-X. Lin 446 (IBSC, LAF, PE). HAINAN: Chang-jiang Co., Reese et al. 17594b (IBSC, LAF, MO); Le-dong Co., P.-C. Chen et al. 446f (IBSC, LAF, PE); Ling-shui Co., Reese et al. 17917 (IBSC, LAF, MO); Qiong-zhong Co., P.-J. Lin et al. 213 (IBSC, LAF, SYS).
Habitat: widespread but not common; sometimes locally abundant; on tree trunks, branches, and bases; saplings; low, more or less open forests at moderate to rather high elevations; 700–1600 m; Distribution: tropical Asia, China, Japan, and Malaysia.
This handsome and distinctive moss is very easy to recognize by its odd (for Syrrhopodon) habit, tubulose upper laminae, and strikingly colorful leaves, although in some specimens the coloring is subdued. Chinese collections of this moss include some with very small plants and others with very robust plants, as is true elsewhere in the range of the species. Syrrhopodon flammeonervis was aptly named by Müller—the costa is often golden-yellow; it has no close relatives anywhere in the world.
Illustrations: Pl. 96, figs. 1–11.