15. Syrrhopodon spiculosus Hook. & Grev., Edinburgh Journal of Science. 3:226. 1825.
Plants small to medium-sized, 0.5–1.5 cm high, pale yellowish green, in loose tufts. Stems elongate, rhizoids purple-red, often copious and conspicuous. Leaves curled-contorted when dry, flexed at shoulders and spreading to somewhat patent when wet, involute distally, linear-acuminate above scarcely broader base, 3–4 mm long, axillary hairs inconspicuous; costa spinose-papillose abaxially and adaxially above leaf base; cells of upper laminae obscure, isodiametric, pluripapillose abaxially, bulging-pluripapillose adaxially, dorsal papillae usually tall, peg-like, and pointing distally near leaf tip; margins of upper laminae bordered all around with hyaline cells, entire except toothed toward apex and ciliate at shoulders, border difficult to see sometimes due to involution of margins; cancellinae rounded distally; gemmae frequent, inconspicuous, adaxial on tip of costa. Sporophytes not seen.
Type. Singapore: Wallich s.n. (isotype NY ).
Chinese specimen examined: HAINAN: Le-dong Co., P.-J. Lin et al. 4088 (IBSC, LAF).
Habitat: very rare; on decaying logs in humid forests at moderate elevations; Distribution: China, Sri Lanka, throughout Malaysia, Australia, and western Oceania.
This species is known in China only from the single specimen cited above. It is similar only to S. hainanensis; see discussion under that species for distinctions.
Illustrations: Reese & P.-J. Lin 1991 (figs. 105–108).