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Pakistan | Family List | Boraginaceae

26. Cynoglossum L., Sp. Pl. 134. 1753. Gen. Pl. ed. 5.65.1754; C.B. Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4:155.1883. Riedl in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 48:142.1967; Kazmi in J. Arn. Arb. 52:342.1971.


Biennial, perennial or annual herbs. Cymes elongating in fruit, usually terminal, ebracteate, Calyx 5-partite, lobes in fruit stellately spreading. Corolla rotate or funnel-form with a short tube. Throat scales present. Stamens included; anthers small. Nutlets 4, ovoid to ± globose. Dorsal surface depressed forming a raised margin or not. Margin glochidiate. Gynobase narrow conical to ± pyramidal, with or without awn coherent to the persistent style.

Although the Med. Chechlist (Greuter et al. 1:75-81.1984) takes an extremely wide view of Cynoglossum (including Mattiastrum, Paracaryum and Solenanthus), I prefer to take the narrower circumscription adapted by Brand.

50-60 species in temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Represented in Pakistan by 3-4 species.

Species not seen

Cynoglossum flexuosum (Brand) Kazmi in J. Arn. Arb. 52:352.1971.

Adelocaryum flexuosum Brand in Repert. Sp. Nov. 14:145.1915; Pflanzem iv. 252 (Heft 28): 78.1921.

Type: Kashmir: Gurez, N. of Srinagar, 3-4.10.1856, Schlagintweit 7612 (Breslau)

From the description given by Brand (l.c.) the taxon is an annual with delicate flexuose stems up to 30 cm or more, nutlets that are 3 mm and style 2.5-3 mm.

Possibly related to Cynoglouum glochidiatum or Cynoglouum lanceolatum and perhaps only a variety of either.

Species to be expected

Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Vahl) Thunb. ex Lehm. in Neue. Schrift. Naturf Ges. Halle 3(2):20.1817; Kazmi in J. Arn. Arb. 52:344.1971; Riedl in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 48:145.1967.

Anchusa zeylanica Vahl ex Hornem.

Riedl (l.c.) mentions a gathering from Swat (Rech. 19377, W) which I have not seen. The record needs confirmation. Closely related to Cynoglouum lanceolatum, but differing in the dorsal surface of leaves with equally spaced shorter hairs (c. 0.2 mm) without tuberculate bases.

Distribution: Afghanistan, Paldstan (?), Himalaya, India, Sri Lanka, Assam, Philippines, Japan, China.

1 Nutlets 3.5-5 mm. long   3 Cynoglossum microglochin
+ Nutlets 2-3 mm long   (2)
2 (1) Style 2-2.5 mm long, slender, stigma capitate. Bases of nutlet appendages confluent   2 Cynoglossum glochidiatum
+ Style 1-1.6 mm long, stout. Bases of appendages of nutlets usually not confluent   1 Cynoglossum lanceolatum

Lower Taxa

Related Synonym(s):


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