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Pakistan | Family List | Boraginaceae | Cynoglossum

3. Cynoglossum microglochin Benth. in Royle, Illustr. Bot. Himal. Mount. 1:305.183. A. DC. in DC., Prodr. 10:151.1846; C.B. Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4:158.1883; Brand, Pflanzenr iv. 252.133.1921; Kazmi, l.c. 348.


Perennial herbs up to 12 cm tall. Stem simple or branched, hairy, sometime densely so. Basal leaves petiolate; petioles up to 20 cm long; lamina ovate to oblong or oblanceo-late, 6-20 x 15-10 cm, acute to ± obtuse, abruptly to gradually narrowed towards base or base truncate, densely or sparsely covered with hairs on both surfaces, hairs appressed or sub-appressed, often with prominent tuberculate base, Middle cauline leaves elliptic to broad lanceolate, petioles up to 5 cm long, npper-most leaves sessile to subsessile, hairs on leaves 0.5-1 mm long. Inflorescenc terminal or axillary, lax or dense, simple or bifurcate, up to 16 cm in fruit. Pedicel short, up to 3 mm in fruit and reflexed. Calyx 4/5th partite into oblong-ovate or elliptic ovate lobes, 3-4.5 mm long, up to 6 mm and spreading in fruit. Corolla blue to purplish-blue; lobes ovate, 3-4 mm long. Throat scales emarginate, c. l mm long, puberulous. Nutlets ovate, 4-5 mm long; margin appendiculate, appendage glochidiate, confluent at the base; dorsal middle area often with a prominent kell with few erect glochidiate appendages.

Distribution: Afghanistan, Kashmir to Kumaon.

Throughout its range Cynoglossum microglochin is variable in size, leaf shape and indumentum. Plants of a tall stature with long petioles and long leaves have been dens gnated as Cynoglossum stewartii. This variation is probably in response to a more mesic habit (i.e. forests). After having examined plants annotated as Cynoglossum stewartii, I have come to the conclusion that they are not specifically different from Cynoglossum microglochin. Cynoglossum nervosum according to C.B. Clarke (l.c.) differs from Cynoglossum microglochin in leave that are sparsely hirsute on both surfaces, nerves that are not prominent on the under surface, and in the laxer racemes and larger flowers. From the Pakistan and Kashmir specimens examined, not one could with certainly be singled out as Cynoglossum nervosum,. The indumentum in Cynoglossum microglochin s.l. is variable. The upper leaf surface may be sparsely or densely pubescent, sometimes it is ± scabrid with coarse hairs arising from prominent tuberculate bases.

In the present text the species Cynoglossum stewartii and Cynoglossum nervosum are included in Cynoglossum microglochin.

Two varieties of Cynoglossum microglochin can be recognised from Pakistan.

1 Undersurface of leaves dense and softly hairy, with prominent nerves; uppersurface with hairs arising from prominent tubercles. Cauline leaves ± ovate, acute   3 Cynoglossum microglochin var. microglochin
+ Leaves on both surfaces covered uniformly with soft white hairs, not densely so, often arising from less prominent tubercles. Cauline leaves oblong, ± obtuse   3 Cynoglossum microglochin var. nervosum

Lower Taxa

Related Synonym(s):


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