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Pakistan | Family List | Poaceae

Digitaria Haller, Hist. Stirp. 2:244. 1768. Blatter & McCann, Bombay Grasses 123. 1935; Bor, Fl. Assam 5:202. 1940; Henrard, Monogr. Genus Digitaria 1950; Sultan & Stewart, Grasses W. Pak. 1:5. 1958; Bor, Grasses Burma Ceyl. Ind. Pak. 292. 1960; Bor in Towns., Guest & Al-Rawi, Fl. Iraq 9:476. 1968; Bor in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 70:485. 1970; Veldkamp in Blumea 21:1. 1973; Tzvelev, Poaceae URSS 669. 1976; Clayton in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 5:262. 1980; nom. Conserve.

  • Digitariella de Winter
  • Digitariopsis C.E. Hubbard
  • Syntherisma Walt.
  • Trichachne Nees

    Annuals or perennials. Leaf-blades mostly linear and flat; ligule short, scarious or membranous, glabrous or ciliate. Inflorescence composed of racemes, these digitate or borne upon an elongated central axis, rarely solitary, sometimes with secondary branchlets; rhachis flat or triquetrous, bearing the spikelets in appressed groups of 1-5 or more, their lower glume abaxial; pedicels terete or triquetrous, usually smooth or scaberulous. Spikelets lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, flattened on the front, convex on the back; lower glume small or suppressed; upper glume membranous, as long as the spikelet, or much shorter and exposing the upper lemma; lower floret barren, represented by a prominently nerved membranous lemma as long as the spikelet (rarely much reduced), usually hairy, typically with the hairs forming stripes between the 1st and 2nd lateral nerves and along the margin; upper floret bisexual, the lemma chartaceous to cartilaginous, finely longitudinally striate, with its hyaline margins enfolding and concealing most of the plea, ± dorsally compressed, usually rounded on the back, subacute to acuminate, rarely rostrate; caryopsis oblong, plano-convex in section, mostly acute to subacute.

    A genus of about 200 species in tropical and warm temperate regions, particularly in the Old World; 14 species occur in Pakistan, 2 of them in cultivation only, 1 an alien weed.

    Digitaria is not an easy genus to name. It is traditionally subdivided according to the nature of the hairs, but this requires a microscope, and the different kinds of hair form a continuous spectrum rather than discrete groups, with a sprinkling of glabrous variants to complicate the situation. Reliance is here placed early on in the key upon spikelet grouping. This works reasonably well, but is sometimes deceptive. Ternate spikelets often have the longest pedicel fused to the rhachis, so that the spikelets seem to be alternately solitary and paired; sometimes one of the spikelets is vestigial. Binate spikelets are often associated with the development of secondary branching, which can be misleading; in particular the pedicel is sometimes forked so that the spikelets appear ternate, but the pedicels of truly ternate spikelets all arise from the same node.

    1 Racemes scattered along an elongated axis longer than themselves   Digitaria californica
    + Racemes digitate or subdigitate, or on a short main axis shorter than themselves   (2)
    2 (1) Spikelets ternate   (3)
    + Spikelets binate   (8)
    3 (2) Spikelets glabrous   Digitaria stewartiana
    + Spikelets hairy   (4)
    4 (3) Hairs on spikelets verrucose   (5)
    + Hairs on spikelets distinctly clavate at the tip, not verrucose   (7)
    5 (4) Spikelets 1.2-2 mm long with short spreading or ± appressed hairs   (6)
    + Spikelets 1.9-2.4 mm long with long matted hairs curled at the tips and appearing, at low magnification, as though they are clavate   Digitaria ischaemum
    6 (5) Racemes typically 3 or more: pedicels sometimes ± flattened and winged, scabrid; upper glume noticeably shorter than the spikelet, commonly 3-nerved; fruit dark brown to almost black   Digitaria violascens
    + Racemes typically 2; pedicels terete, smooth; upper glume as long as the spikelet, 5-nerved; fruit pallid, light brown or light grey   Digitaria longiflora
    7 (4) Tip of pedicel with a corona of hairs up to 1 mm long   Digitaria stricta
    + Tip of pedicel glabrous, without a corona   Digitaria abludens
    8 (2) Rhachis bare of spikelets in the lower half, pennately hairy   Digitaria pennata
    + Rhachis spiculate to the base, not pennately hairy   (9)
    9 (8) Margins of rhachis smooth   Digitaria radicosa
    + Margins of rhachis scabrid   (10)
    10 (9) Lower glume absent or very obscure   Digitaria setigera
    + Lower glume present and ± conspicuous   (11)
    11 (10) Culms with bulbous swellings at the base, the basal sheaths silky hairy   (12)
    + Culms not swollen at the base and without silky hairy basal sheaths   (13)
    12 (11) Racemes ± loose; rhachis winged; upper glume two thirds to as long as the spikelet; wild grass   Digitaria nodosa
    + Racemes tighter, rhachis wingless; upper glume shorter: in cultivation only   Digitaria eriantha
    13 (11) Nerves of lemma smooth   Digitaria ciliaris
    + Nerves of lemma with sparse to numerous minute siliceous spines or scabridities   Digitaria sanguinalis

  • List of lower taxa


    Related Objects  

    Flora of China  
  • Digitaria.pdf
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