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Grewia Linn., Sp. Pl. 964. 1753. Gen. P1. ed. 5.412. 1754; DC., Prodr. I :508. 1824; Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 1:233. 1862; Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1:843. 1867; Masters in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1:383. 1874; Narayanswami & Rao in J. Ind. Bot. Soc. 29 (4): 177-190. 1950; Hutch., Gen. Fl. P1. 2:487. 1967.

Grewia damine

Credit: Shaukat

  • Chadara Forsk.
  • Microcos Linn.

    Small trees or shrubs, rarely subspreading or climbing, with stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, petiolate, entire or serrate, rarely lobed, 3-7-costate, somewhat coriaceous; stipulate. Inflorescence axillary or leaf-opposed, solitary or clustered, pedunculate, umbellate cymes or panicles. Flowers bisexual, pedicellate, yellow, orange, pink or white, pentamerous, bracteate. Sepals 5, free, leathery, mostly coloured and almost glabrous within, valvate. Petals 5, very rarely absent, free, mostly shorter than the sepals, clawed, claw thick, pitted or glandular near the point of insertion at the base of often glandular-hairy torus. Stamens numerous, free, inserted on the more or less elevated torus or androphore; anthers somewhat orbicular. Carpels 2-4, syncarpous; ovary superior on top of androphore, 2-4-loculed, each locule with 2 or more superposed ovules; style subulate, with 2-4-lobed stigma. Drupe yellow, red or violet, globose, entire or up to 4-lobed, containing 1-4 pyrenes, each stone 1 or 2-seeded, rarely more seeded and often transversely septate (locellate) between the seeds. Seeds suberect or horizontal, with copious to hardly any endosperm; embryo straight, with thin foliaceous cotyledons.

    A genus with about 150 species; distributed in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Australia.

    1 Cymes axillary or leaf-opposed or flowers solitary; peduncles solitary or several together in clusters   (2)
    + Cymes arranged in terminal or axillary, 8-15 cm long panicles. (Sepals cucullate at the apex)   Grewia microcos
    2 (1) Petals (8-) 10-14 mm long. Flowers solitary or in leaf-opposed cymes   (3)
    + Petals 2.5-7 mm long. Flowers in axillary cymes   (4)
    3 (2) Tree. Flowers yellowish-red, 2-8 together on 2-3.5 cm long peduncles. Petals entire at the apex   Grewia optiva
    + Suberect to erect shrub. Flowers white (rarely yellowish white), solitary (rarely paired) on 1-2 cm long peduncles. Petals bilobed at the apex   Grewia tenax
    4 (2) Leaves 3-costate   (5)
    + Leaves 5-7-costate   (7)
    5 (4) Sepals 12-15 mm long. Petals 4-7 mm long   (6)
    + Sepals 5-6 mm long. Petals 2.5-3 mm long   Grewia helicterifolia
    6 (5) Leaves almost glabrous, lanceolate, 10-13 cm long, 3.5-5 cm brad, acuminate; stipules 4-5 mm long. Petals oblong-elliptic, 4-5 mm long   Grewia glabra
    + Leaves scattered stellate hairy above, hoary tomentose and whitish beneath, narrowly lanceolate to ovate, 1.2-5 cm long, 0.8-2.2 cm broad, obtuse. Stipues 8-10 (-15) mm long. Petals oblong-obovate, 6-7 mm long   Grewia damine
    7 (4) Leaf serratures with bunches of long hairs; stipules ovate-oblong. petals narrowly obovate, emarginate to retuse at the apex. Drupe yellowhish-brown or coppery red, densely villous with bunches of hairs on tubercles   Grewia villosa
    + Leaf serratures without bunches of hairs; stipules linear-lanceolate or falcate. Petals oblong, entire or irregularly serrate at the apex. Drupe not as above   (8)
    8 (7) A small shrub, 1-1.5 m tall. Leaves cuneate. Drupe somewhat 4-lobed   Grewia sapida
    + Large shrubs or medium sized trees. Leaves obtuse or cordate at the base. Drupe entire or obscurely 2-lobed   (9)
    9 (8) Leaves ovate-elliptic, unlobed or slightly 3-lobed towards acuminate apex; stipules linear. Sepals 6-8 mm long   Grewia elastica
    + Leaves broadly ovate to almost orbicular, never lobed, acute to obtuse at apex; stipules obliquely lanceolate or falcate. Sepals c. 1.2 cm long   Grewia asiatica

    Lower Taxa

    Related Synonym(s):


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    Flora of China  
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