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Pakistan | Family List | Tiliaceae | Grewia

Grewia optiva Drummond ex Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. 9: 692. 1926. R.R. Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vase. Pl. W. Pak. & Kash. 472. 1972.

Vern.: Dhaman, Dhamna, Pharwa, Biul, Bhewal.

Grewia optiva

Credit: Shaukat

  • Grewia oppositifolia auct. non DC.

    A small tree, sometimes reaching up to 15 m in height, trunk with ashy-white bark. Branches spreading, young shoots divaricate, rough with stellate tomentum. Leaves with 4-10 mm long, scabrous petiole; lamina stellate-tomentose on both sides, rough, ovate to broadly ovate, 3.5-10 cm long, 2-6.5 cm broad, 3-costate, oblique or obtuse at the base, margin glandular-crenate, acute to acu¬minate; stipules subulate, c. 4-5 mm long, densely hairy, caducous. Cyme 2-8-flowered, antiphyllous, very rarely axillary, peduncle solitary, 2-3.5 cm long, densely hairy to almost glabrous. Flowers yellowish-red, c. 3.5 cm across, pedicel 1.5-2.5 cm long, clavate, densely hairy to glabrescent; bracts subulate, 4-5 mm long, hairy, caducous. Sepals linear-oblong, 1.7-1.8 cm long, c. 3.5-4 mm broad, stellate hairy outside with 2 distinct furrows and 3 ridges, yellowish-red within, acute. Petals elliptic-oblong, c. 10 mm long, c. 2.5-3 mm broad, basal gland densely ciliate. Stamens variable in length, filaments 6-10 mm long, anthers versatile. Ovary ovoid, 2-4-lobed, hairy, style filiform, c. 10 mm long, stigma 2-4-lobed, papillose. Drupe usually 2-4-lobed, lobes globose, each 4-6 mm in diameter, fleshy, purple, stellate hairy to glabrous.

    Fl.Per.: April-September.

    Type: Nepal, Hamilton.

    Distribution: Himalayan regions in Pakistan, Nepal, India, usually between 500 and 2500 m.

    Leaves and young shoots are fed to cattle, sheep and goats for increasing milk yield. The green bark is used by women for cleaning the hairs. The coarse bast fibres are used for making poor quality ropes for tying cattle and strings for cots. The wood possesses an unpleasant odour. It is strong and elastic and older branches are used for making cot frames, axe handles, oar shafts, spears, bows (ghalel) and as shoulder sticks (banghey poles). The drupe is eaten.


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