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Pakistan | Family List | Euphorbiaceae

7. Phyllanthus L., Sp. Pl. 981. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 422. 1754; Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 274. 1866; Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 3(1): 272. 1880; Hook. f, Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 285. 1887; Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 455. 1972.

A. RADCLIFFE-SMITH

  • Anisonema Adr. Joss.
  • Cicca L.
  • Emblica Gaertn.
  • Kirganelia Juss.

    Monoecious or dioecious herbs, shrubs or trees often with the stems diferentiated into 2 or 3 types (long shoots of unlimited growth and intermediate or short shoots of limited growth), with or without a usually simple indumentum. Leaves also often of 2 types (scale-like cataphylls on the long and short shoots and foliage-leaves usually only on the intermediate shoots). Foliage leaves alternate, often distichous, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved. Cataphyll-stipules larger than those of the foliage leaves. Flowers small, axillary, solitary, geminate or fasciculate. Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; sepals 4-6, biseriate, imbricate, subequal; petals 0; disc-glands 4-6, free, rarely annular or 0; stamens 2-6, filaments free or connate, anthers basifixed, extrorse, oblong, didymous or reniform, the cells parallel or convergent, longitudinally, obliquely or transversely dehiscent; pistillode 0. Female flowers: pedicels more robust than the ♂; sepals ± as in the ♂; disc annular or cupular, entire or lobed, rarely of separate glands; ovary 3-∞-celled, with 2 ovules per cell: styles 3-∞, free or connate, bifid or bibbed, usually recurved. Fruits 3-∞-celled, dehiscent into bivalved cocci, baccate or drupaceous; endocarp usually crustaceous. Seeds trigonous, segmentiform, rarely ovoid, ecarunculate; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons flat or flexuous.

    A large pantropical genus of some 700 species, with 10 species in Pakistan.


    1 Trees or shrubs   (2)
    + Herbs   (5)
           
    2 (1) Foliage-leaves not more than 1 cm long; fruits not fleshy, readily dehiscent   7 Phyllanthus parvifolius
    + Foliage-leaves 1 cm or more; fruits fleshy, drupaceous or baccate, indehiscent or tardily dehiscent   (3)
           
    3 (2) Fruit less than 1 cm diam., baccate, 3.pluri-lobate, black   8 Phyllanthus reticulatus
    + Fruit more than 1 cm diam., drupaceous, 1-3-lobate, greenish; yellowish or whitish   (4)
           
    4 (3) Leaves up to 40 per shoot, lax; leaf-blades ovate to ovate-lanceolate, up to 9 x 4.5 cm   9 Phyllanthus acidus
    + Leaves up to 150 per shoot, dense; leaf blades linear-oblong, 0.5-1.6 cm x 1-3 mm   10 Phyllanthus emblica
           
    5 (1) Stems of only one type; cataphylls absent   (6)
    + Stems of two or more types; cataphylls present   (7)
           
    6 (5) Leaves oblanceolate to obovate; anthers vertical; fruiting pedicels not more than 2 mm long; female sepals suborbicular-obovate; fruit smooth, shiny   5 Phyllanthus maderaspatensis
    + Leaves linear-lanceolate; anthers ± horizontal; fruiting pedicels up to 7 mm long; female sepals narrowly elliptic; fruit minutely granulate   6 Phyllanthus virgatus
           
    7 (5) Cataphylls borne above their stipules; fruits usually scaly   1 Phyllanthus urinaria
    + Cataphylls borne on a level with their stipules; fruits smooth   (8)
           
    8 (7) Plant completely glabrous; male & female flowers occuring together in some axils; sepals of both sexes 5; female disc 5-lobed, the lobes triangular   3 Phyllanthus amarus
    + Plant glabrous, subglabrous, scaberulous or scabrid; male & female flowers usually in separate axils, sometimes together; sepals of both sexes 6   (9)
           
    9 (8) Leaves elliptic-oblong to elliptic-oblanceolate, up to 5 mm wide, not asperulous, dark green; female disc irregularly deeply 6-10-lobed; seeds ochreous-fulvous   2 Phyllanthus fraternus
    + Leaves suborbicular-obovate, up to 1 cm wide, often asperulous beneath, grey-green or glaucous; female disc annular; seeds dark brown   4 Phyllanthus rotundifolius

    Lower Taxa

    Related Synonym(s):


     

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