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4. Scutellaria L., Sp. Pl. 598. 1753. Gen. Pl. ed. 5:260. 1754; Hamilton, A., Esquisse d’une monographie du genre Scutellaria, Lyon, 1832; Benth. in DC., Prodr.12: 412. 1848; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 667. 1885; Briquet in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed.1, 4, 3A: 225. 1896; Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 14, 1: 140. 1940; Juzepczuk in Komarov, Fl. URSS 20: 73. 1954; Hedge & Lamond in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 28: 134. 1968; Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 150: 44. 1982; Paton in Notes Roy. Gard. Edinb. 43,3: 345-349. 1990.

I.C. Hedge & A. Paton

  • Anaspis Rech. f.

    Suffruticose shrubby or herbaceous perennials, with an indumentum of simple eglandular and glandular hairs, varied in habit: caespitose, chasmo-phytic, shrubby, scrambling, prostrate to erect herbs. Not aromatic. Leaves undivided, linear to broadly ovate, entire to serrate, at least lower petiolate. Inflorescence condensed or lax, spike-like or racemose; flowers solitary in axils of upper leaves, bract-like leaves or small flat bracts, or subtended by large thin-textured cucullate bracts, secund or borne in four-sided inflorescences. Pedicels terete or flattened. Calyx bilabiate with entire broad, rounded lips; upper lip folded midway along its length producing a somewhat erect sail-like structure called a scutellum which is sometimes membranous- inflated or is absent; fruiting calyx dorso-ventrally compressed, somewhat enlarged, closed at mouth, upper lip usually deciduous, lower persisting; if scutellum absent upper lip of testudinate* shape. Corolla bilabiate, showy, of various colours or combinations of colours, white, yellow, pink, purple or violet, ± sigmoid, erect or spreading; tube long, clearly exserted beyond calyx, often slender somewhat wider above, exannulate within; lips short, upper plicate; lower lip broad large, glabrous, lateral lobes often attached to upper lip. Stamens 4, included under upper lip of corolla, didynamous, anterior longer than posterior; thecae bearded or ciliate, anterior pair unilocular with an aborted theca, posterior bilocular with converging thecae. Style with 2 unequal branches. Nutlets ovoid, tuberculate, borne on a peg-like gynophore, papillose or smooth, glabrous or with a prominent indumentum of spreading or adpressed hairs.

    A ± cosmopolitan genus of c. 350 currently recognized species (probably an inflated total). Clearly isolated from all other Labiate genera by the combination of the entire 2-lipped calyx closed in fruit, the form of the corolla, the unilocular anterior anthers, the peg-like gynophore and the bent embryo with the radicle adpressed to the cotyledons.

    Two major taxonomic groups can be recognized** on inflorescence

    [* arched or vaulted, shaped like a testudo or shell of a tortoise

    ** one of us (A.P.) has recently published a global account of the infra-generic categories of the genus (Kew Bull. 45: 399-450.1990)].

    1 Leaves linear, entire - margined, revolute, with clusters of younger leaves in axils   7 Scutellaria linearis
    + Leaves oblong - lanceolate, ovate to orbicular, entire to serrate, without younger leaves in leaf axils   (2)
    2 (1) Inflorescence elongated; flowers secund, in arils of upper leaves, leaf-like bracts or small flat bracts; nutlets glabrous or with spreading or adpressed hairs   (3)
    + Inflorescence four-sided, elongated or condensed; flowers subtended by large cucullate bracts; nutlets with adpressed hairs   (8)
    3 (2) Stems scrambling, up to 1.5 m long; flowers mostly in lateral inflorescences arising from leaf-awls [Kashmir & Hazara only]   (4)
    + Stems not scrambling, less than 0.75 m; flowers mostly in terminal inflorescences [throughout our are]   (5)
    4 (3) Stems with retrorse hairs, acutely quadrangular; leaves with few strigillose broad-based hairs; corolla 20 mm or more; nutlets tuberculate, pale brown, with a prominent median band   3 Scutellaria scandens
    + Stems with antrorse hairs, quadrangular; leaves densely hairy, corolla less than 20 mm; nutlets smooth, grey-black   4 Scutellaria repens
    5 (3) Flowers in axils of upper oblong-lanceolate leaves; nutlets prominently tuberculate, orange-brown plant of wet places   1 Scutellaria galericulata
    + Flowers in axils of small bracts or leaflike bracts; nutlets minutely tuberculate, black; plants of dry or rocky places   (6)
    6 (5) Calyx with a scutellum at anthesis; herb with white or cream flowers   2 Scutellaria grossa
    + Calyx without a scutellum at anthesis; chasmophytes with violet-blue flowers   (7)
    7 (6) Stems with patent or crisped, usually antrorse eglandular hairs [Quetta and Sibi]   5 Scutellaria petiolata
    + Stems with a sparse, pruinose eglandular indumentum [Chitral and Dir]   6 Scutellaria nuristanica
    8 (2) Lowermost leaves brown, scale-like, orbicular, adpressed to stem; upper leaves ovate-elliptic entire; chasmophyte   16 Scutellaria stocksii
    + Leaves all herbaceous, elliptic to ovate, crenulate to serrate; not chasmophytes   (9)
    9 (8) Upper lip of calyx with a 6-8 mm high membranous-inflated scutellum in fruit; high alpine scree plant   15 Scutellaria heydei
    + Upper lip of fruiting calyx with a c. 3 mm high scutellum, not membranous-inflated   (10)
    10 (9) Leaf margins regularly crenulate; abaxial leaf surfaces with prominent raised venation and indumentum mainly restricted to veins   11 Scutellaria chamaedrifolia
    + Leaf margins irregularly crenulate to serrate; abaxial leaf surface not with prominent raised venation   (11)
    11 (10) Inflorescence ± lax; bracts not or scarecely overlapping each other, less than 7 mm long; corolla usually yellowish with a purplish lower lip   (12)
    + Inflorescence condensed; bracts mostly imbricate longer than 7 mm; corolla usually pale yellow with a violet or purple upper lip   (13)
    12 (11) Plant with ± stiffly erect branches   8 Scutellaria multicaulis
    + Plant with ± spreading or prostrate branches   9 Scutellaria edelbergii
    13 (11) Stems and leaves densely covered with long spreading hairs; abaxial leaf surface tomentose [Kurram valley and Waziristan]   10 Scutellaria kotkaiensis
    + Stem indumentum of crisped, antrorse or retrorse hairs, usually spreading above; leaf abaxial surface never tomentose   (14)
    14 (13) Upper stem leaves ovate-elliptic, sessile, crenulate to crenate, obtuse at apex; leaf indumentum sparse, mainly on veins of veins of abaxial surface   12 Scutellaria paulsenii
    + Upper stem leaves narrow ovate to triangular-ovate, crenate to serrate, acute; leaf indumentum of short dense hairs, abaxially not confined to veins   (15)
    15 (14) Leaves ovate or triangular, truncate to cuneate at base [Kashmir, Gilgit, Swat and Hazara]   13 Scutellaria prostrata
    + Leaves narrow ovate, cuneate at base [Quetta and Waziristan]   14 Scutellarla lacei

  • List of lower taxa


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