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Pakistan | Family List | Poaceae

Stipa Linn., Sp. Pl. 1:78. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 34. 1754; Boiss., Fl. Or. 5:499. 1884; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 7:228. 1896; Rozhev. & Shishkin in Kom., Fl. URSS 2:79. 1934; Bor, Fl. Assam 5:158. 1940; Ovchinnikov, Fl. Tadzh. 1:414. 1957; Sultan & Stewart, Grasses W. Pak. 2:355. 1959; Bor, Grasses Burma Ceyl. Ind. Pak. 641. 1960; Bor in Towns., Guest & Al-Rawi, Fl. Iraq 9:395. 1968; Tzvelev, Pl. As. Cent., Gram. 45. 1968; Bor in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 70:377. 1970; Tzvelev, Poaceae URSS 567. 1976; Martinovsky in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 5:247. 1980.

  • Achnatherum P. Beauv.
  • Lasiagrostis Link
  • Ptilagrostis Griseb.

    Lemma convolute or with the margins not overlapping at the base, linear, terete or slightly dorsally compressed, glabrous or hairy, minutely bilobed at the tip or entire; callus pungent, sometimes short and obtuse; awn persistent or deciduous, straight, flexuous or once to twice geniculate, twisted below the knee, sometimes only faintly so.

    A genus of about 300 species; mainly temperate and warm temperate regions of the World; 21 species occur in Pakistan.

    Stipa is not always clearly separated from Piptatherum P. Beauv., a genus with untwisted awns and glabrous, obtuse callus. Some attempts have been made to divide Stipa into smaller genera, particularly by authors in the USSR, but since no uniform treatment is available for Stipa worldwide, the genus is treated here in a wide sense. According to the latest accounts species 1-4 belong to Achnatherum, 5 & 6 to Ptilagrostis and 7-21 to Stipa.

    Stipa is a large and confusing genus that has, in our area, been badly misunderstood in the past, and in consequence the presence of a number of species listed in Stewart’s catalogue has not been confirmed. These are Stipa barbata Desf., Stipa hohenackerana Trin. & Rupr, Stipa roylei (Nees) Mez, Stipa pennata Linn. and Stipa duthiei Hook.f.

    Many of the species of Stipa are represented in our area by only a handful of specimens (sometimes only one or two) and doubtless many more species will be found in the more mountainous parts of Kashmir. The species, although mostly very close together, are nevertheless relatively easy to distinguish. A useful account of the species of Central Asia can be found in volume 4 (Gramineae) of Plantae Asiae Centralis (1968) published by Academia Scientiarum URSS.

    1 Callus obtuse or conical; lemma 2-toothed at the tip   (2)
    + Callus acuminate, pungent, rarely blunt S.sibirica); lemma entire at the tip   (7)
    2 (1) Awn glabrous throughout its length or thinly hairy on the column   (3)
    + Awn plumose throughout its length   (6)
    3 (2) Glumes conspicuously unequal   (4)
    + Glumes ± equal   (5)
    4 (3) Lemma 4.8-5.7 mm long, the apical teeth 0.5-1.3 mm long; awn 6-12 mm long   Stipa splendens
    + Lemma 9-10 mm long, the apical teeth c.2.5 mm long; awn 16-20 mm long   Stipa chitralensis
    5 (3) Panicle loose and spreading, the branches bare in the lower half to two-thirds   Stipa caragana
    + Panicle narrow, the branches short and ascending, spiculate to the base   Stipa jacquemontii
    6 (2) Panicle very loose and open, the branches and pedicels capillary, spreading; awn bigeniculate, 15-30 mm long   Stipa mongholica
    + Panicle narrow and ± contracted, the branches and pedicels erect, not capillary; awn unigeni culate, 10-15 mm long   Stipa concinna
    7 (1) Glumes lanceolate, acute or slightly acuminate, not much longer than the lemma (c. 1.5 times as long)   (8)
    + Glumes narrowly lanceolate and long-acuminate, much longer than the lemma (2-4 times as long)   (10)
    8 (7) Leaf-blades flat, 3.5-8(-12) mm wide; spikelets pallid or green   Stipa sibirica
    + Leaf-blades involute and setaceous, no more than 1 mm wide when flattened; spikelets deeply suffused with purple   (9)
    9 (8) Awn with plumose column (hairs up to 1 mm long) and shortly hairy bristle (hairs 0.2-0.3 mm long)   Stipa regeliana
    + Awn with long-plumose column (hairs 25-3.5 mm long) and scaberulous bristle   Stipa subsessiliflora
    10 (7) Annual; awns at length twisted together to form a tail at the summit of the panicle   Stipa capensis
    + Perennial; awns not twisted together into a tail (except in S. consanguinea)   (11)
    11 (10) Awn scabrid throughout its length or with hairs not more than 0.8 mm long   (12)
    + Awn either plumose throughout its length with longest hairs (1.5-)3-7 mm long or partly plumose and partly smooth, scabrid or very shortly hairy   (14)
    12 (11) Awns at length entangled to form a tail at the summit of the panicle, shortly puberulous throughout their length; lemma 8-10 mm long, with a crown of short stiff hairs at the tip   Stipa consanguinea
    + Awns not becoming entangled to form a tail   (13)
    13 (12) Awn scabrid throughout its length; lemma 10-14 mm long, smooth towards the top and without a crown of stiff hairs at the tip   Stipa capillata
    + Awn shortly plumose (hairs not exceeding 0.8 mm) throughout its length; lemma 5-7 mm long, spinulose-scabrid towards the top and with a crown of stiff hairs at the tip   Stipa breviflora
    14 (11) Awn unigeniculate with a rigidly falcate bristle   Stipa caucasica
    + Awn bigeniculate; bristle often flexuous or recurved but not rigidly falcate   (15)
    15 (14) Glumes lanceolate, shortly acuminate, deeply suffused with purple   (16)
    + Glumes narrowly lanceolate and long-acuminate, green or silvery, but not deeply suffused with purple(though sometimes faintly tinged)   (17)
    16 (15) Panicle loose with long, flexuous, ± filiform branches   Stipa purpurea
    + Panicle narrow, linear with short, stiff, rigidly erect branches   Stipa roborowskyi
    17 (15) Awn plumose, or at least shortly hairy, throughout its length   (18)
    + Awn with plumose bristle, but smooth or scabrid column   (20)
    18 (17) Awn 3.5-7 cm long   Stipa orientalis
    + Awn (9-)10-20 cm long   (19)
    19 (18) Hairs on column of awn 0.5-1 3 mm long   Stipa arabica
    + Hairs on column of awn 2-3 mm long   Stipa himalaica
    20 (17) Lemma 11-13 mm long   Stipa trichoides
    + Lemma (13-) 15-25 mm long   Stipa kirghisorum

  • List of lower taxa


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