Fraxinus excelsior auct. non Linn.: C.B. Clarke
Trees large. Leaves opposite or in whorls of three, 20-35 cm long; leaflets 5-9, 10-15 cm long, 3-6 cm broad, elliptic to obovate, acuminate, entire to slightly crenate or serrulate especially the upper portion, dark green above, paler beneath, slightly pubescent along midrib and prominent nerves, subsessile. Inflorescence decussate on branchlets of the previous year. Calyx and corolla lacking. Anthers sessile, greatly exceeded by pistil. Stigma divided into 2 lobes of c. 0.5 mm length. Samarae lanceolate, 3-4 cm long, 6-8 mm broad, in pendulous decussate panicles, rachis 4-8 cm long.
Fl. Per.: early spring (April?). Fruit: October.
Type: “India orientalis, Himalaya boreali-occidentalis, reg. temp. alt. 6000-9000 ft. Thomson! Hb. Hooker et Thomson N. 4” (K).
Distribution: Western Himalaya, from W. Tibet to Swat; temperate zone, 1200-2700 m. Mostly in valleys where rich soil is available.
This species has been collected from Kashmir and Swat valley above Bahrein and is to be expected in the other parts of the Himalayas in Pakistan. In a number of places the tree has probably been exterminated. The wood is highly valued for tools, rifle butts, etc. Young branches are often cut and used as fodder.