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51. CERASUS Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. [300]. 1754.

樱属 ying shu

Li Chaoluan (Li Chao-luang), Jiang Shunyuan; Bruce Bartholomew

Padellus Vassilczenko.

Trees or shrubs, deciduous. Branches unarmed. Axillary winter buds 1 or 3, lateral buds flower buds, central bud a leaf bud; terminal winter buds present. Stipules soon caducous, margin serrulate, teeth often gland-tipped. Leaves simple, alternate or fascicled on short branchlets, conduplicate when young; petiole usually with 2 apical nectaries or nectaries sometimes at base of leaf blade margin; leaf blade margin singly or doubly serrate, rarely serrulate. Inflorescences axillary, fasciculate-corymbose or 1-or 2-flowered, base often with an involucre formed by floral bud scales. Flowers opening before or at same time as leaves, pedicellate, with persistent scales or conspicuous bracts. Hypanthium campanulate or tubular. Sepals 5, reflexed or erect. Petals 5, white or pink. Stamens 15–50, inserted on or near rim of hypanthium. Carpel 1. Ovary superior, 1-loculed, hairy or glabrous; ovules 2, collateral, pendulous. Style terminal, elongated, hairy or glabrous; stigma emarginate. Fruit a drupe, glabrous, not glaucous, without a longitudinal groove. Mesocarp succulent, not splitting when ripe; endocarp globose to ovoid, smooth or ± rugose.

About 150 species: temperate Asia, Europe, North America; 43 species (29 endemic, five introduced).

The Himalayan species Cerasus rufa (J. D. Hooker) T. T. Yü & C. L. Li (Prunus rufa J. D. Hooker) was reported from Xizang by both T. T. Yü et al. (Fl. Xizang. 2: 693. 1985) and T. T. Yü & C. L. Chao (FRPS 38: 80. 1986). However, it is now believed that this species does not occur in Xizang.

The present authors have seen no material of the following species described from Taiwan: Prunus matuurae Sasaki, P. taiwaniana Hayata (P. itosakura Siebold var. taiwaniana (Hayata) Kudô & Masamune), P. takasagomontana Sasaki, and P. transarisanensis Hayata. Their status is uncertain and they are not included in this treatment.

Many species of cherry are cultivated for their edible fruit or as garden ornamentals.

The following taxa have been described from China, but we have seen no specimens and are therefore unable to treat them in this account. Further revision is necessary.

Prunus bonatii Koehne (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 265. 1912), described from Yunnan: Maire 3719.

Prunus canescens M. Vilmorin & Bois (Frutic. Vilmor. 66. 1904), described from Hubei: E. H. Wilson 65.

Prunus carcharias Koehne (in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 1: 267. 1912), described from Chongqing: A. von Rosthorn s.n.

Prunus concinna Koehne (in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 1: 210. 1912), described from Hubei: E. H. Wilson 2825.

Prunus giraldiana C. K. Schneider (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1: 65. 1905), described from Shaanxi: G. Giraldi 3789.

Prunus phyllopoda Koehne (in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 1: 257. 1912), described from Shaanxi: G. Giraldi s.n.

Prunus plurinervis Koehne (in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 1: 208. 1912), described from Sichuan: E. H. Wilson 907.

Prunus pulchella Koehne (in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 1: 197. 1912), described from Hubei: E. H. Wilson 2827.

Prunus rossiana Koehne (in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 1: 223. 1912), described from Hubei: E. H. Wilson 182.

1 Winter buds 3 per leaf axil with 2 lateral flower buds and 1 central leaf.   (2)
+ Winter bud 1 per leaf axil.   (8)
2 (1) Pedicel to 2.5 mm or flowers sessile; hypanthium longer than wide; sepals erect or spreading; style villous basally or throughout.   (3)
+ Pedicel 4–20 mm; hypanthium as long as wide; sepals reflexed; style pilose basally or glabrous throughout.   (4)
3 (2) Leaf blade ovate-elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 2–7 cm, adaxially pilose, abaxially densely tomentose.   1 C. tomentosa
+ Leaf blade obovate-oblanceolate, 0.8–1.6 cm, glabrous.   2 C. tianshanica
4 (2) Leaf blade broadest basally from middle, base rounded.   3 C. japonica
+ Leaf blade broadest at about middle or apically (basally sometimes in C. pogonostyla var. obovata and C. glandulosa), base cuneate or broadly so.   (5)
5 (4) Leaf blade abaxially hirsute to pilose along veins.   (6)
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous, sparsely pubescent, or with tufted hairs in vein axils.   (7)
6 (5) Leaf blade abaxially pilose along veins or sometimes between veins; style basally pilose.   4 C. pogonostyla
+ Leaf blade abaxially densely brown hirsute; style glabrous.   5 C. dictyoneura
7 (5) Leaf blade secondary veins 6–8 on either side of midvein; hypanthium outside pilose; style slightly shorter than stamens; drupe 1.5–1.8 cm in diam.   6 C. humilis
+ Leaf blade secondary veins 4 or 5 on either side of midvein; hypanthium outside glabrous; style slightly longer than stamens; drupe 1–1.3 cm in diam.   7 C. glandulosa
8 (1) Bracts green, persistent.   (9)
+ Bracts brown or rarely greenish brown, rarely persistent.   (24)
9 (8) Teeth of leaf blade margin non-glandular, with an apical cartilaginous mucro, or with an inconspicuous apical gland.   (10)
+ Teeth of leaf blade margin with a distinct apical gland.   (13)
10 (9) Inflorescences corymbose, 5–10-flowered; endocarp markedly sculptured.   8 C. maximowiczii
+ Inflorescences umbellate, 2–4-flowered; endocarp smooth.   (11)
11 (10) Shrubs 0.2–1 m tall; sepals shorter than hypanthium; drupe ca. 1 cm.   9 C. fruticosa
+ Trees 10–25 m tall; sepals nearly as long as hypanthium; drupe 1.2–2.5 cm.   (12)
12 (11) Petiole 1–2 cm; leaf blade glabrous; inflorescence inner involucral bracts straight; mesocarp sour.   10 C. vulgaris
+ Petiole 2–7 cm; leaf blade abaxially sparsely villous; inflorescence inner involucral bracts curved; mesocarp sweet.   11 C. avium
13 (9) Glands disciform or depressed at apex of teeth along bract margins and sometimes along leaf blade margins.   (14)
+ Glands not disciform or depressed at apex of teeth along bract and leaf blade margins (sometimes depressed in C. patentipila).   (17)
14 (13) Inflorescences subcorymbose-racemose or racemose.   (15)
+ Inflorescences umbellate.   (16)
15 (14) Style glabrous or sparsely pilose.   12 C. szechuanica
+ Style sparsely villous basal to middle.   13 C. discadenia
16 (14) Flowers opening at same time as leaves; hypanthium outside glabrous; petals apically rounded.   14 C. tatsienensis
+ Flowers opening before leaves; hypanthium outside pilose; petals apically 2-lobed.   15 C. discoidea
17 (13) Inflorescences umbellate.   (18)
+ Inflorescences corymbose-racemose (umbellate-racemose in C. claviculata).   (21)
18 (17) Petiole glabrous; bracts 5–20 mm; sepals spreading.   16 C. setulosa
+ Petiole ± hairy (sometimes glabrous in C. clarofolia and C. conradinae); bracts 2–8 mm; sepals reflexed.   (19)
19 (18) Branchlets densely villous; leaf blade abaxially densely spreading villous; hypanthium outside densely villous.   18 C. polytricha
+ Branchlets glabrous or pilose; leaf blade abaxially pilose along veins or glabrous; hypanthium outside glabrous.   (20)
20 (19) Winter buds ovoid, glabrous; petiole glabrous or pilose; stamens 20–30; drupe long ellipsoid.   17 C. clarofolia
+ Winter buds ellipsoid-ovoid, pilose; petiole densely spreading villous; stamens 32–54; drupe ovoid to subglobose.   36 C. conradinae
21 (17) Peduncles, rachises, pedicels, and outside of sepals glabrous.   (22)
+ Peduncles, rachises, pedicels, and outside sepals distinctly hairy.   (23)
22 (21) Young branchlets brown; bracts 0.5–2.5 cm; hypanthium ca. 5 mm in diam.; style nearly as long as stamens; endocarp ± sculptured.   19 C. conadenia
+ Young branchlets tinged reddish brown to reddish green; bracts 0.2–0.5 cm; hypanthium 3–4 mm in diam.; style slightly longer than stamens; endocarp markedly sculptured.   20 C. pleiocerasus
23 (21) Leaf blade abaxially pilose or sparsely pubescent; teeth along bract margins and sometimes along leaf blade margins aristate and with a claviculate apical gland; hypanthium outside basally pilose to subglabrous; sepals margin sparsely ciliate.   21 C. dolichadenia
+ Leaf blade abaxially densely horizontally spreading villous to hirsute; teeth along bract and leaf blade margins with a capitate to flattened-capitate (depressed) apical gland; hypanthium outside pilose; sepals margin glandular serrate.   22 C. patentipila
24 (8) Leaf blade margin coarsely incised biserrate or lobed; inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered.   (25)
+ Leaf blade margin biserrate, serrate, or obtusely glandular crenate; inflorescences usually more than 2-flowered (sometimes 1-flowered in C. serrula and C. schneideriana).   (29)
25 (24) Prostrate shrubs; petiole 2–7 mm.   (26)
+ Tree or shrubs; petiole 4–13 mm.   (27)
26 (25) Leaf blade obovate to obovate-elliptic, margin biserrate but not lobed, apex obtuse to acute.   24 C. mugus
+ Leaf blade elliptic-ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, margin biserrate and lobed, apex acute to acuminate.   25 C. crataegifolius
27 (25) Branchlets, pedicels, and outside of sepals hairy; style glabrous.   29 C. caudata
+ Branchlets, pedicels, and outside of sepals glabrous (sometimes pilose in C. trichostoma); style hairy.   (28)
28 (27) Flowers opening at same time as leaves; stipules usually lanceolate to linear, 3–5 mm.   30 C. trichostoma
+ Flowers opening slightly before leaves or nearly so; stipules on vegetative branches usually ovate and auriculate, 5–10 mm.   31 C. stipulacea
29 (24) Inflorescences ± hairy or at least hairy when young.   (30)
+ Inflorescences glabrous.   (36)
30 (29) Style glabrous.   (31)
+ Style hairy.   (33)
31 (30) Leaf blade lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate to long acuminate; endocarp markedly sculptured.   39 C. serrula
+ Leaf blade ovate to broadly ovate, apex usually caudate; endocarp smooth or ± sculptured.   (32)
32 (31) Petals apically emarginate; sepals nearly 1/2 or more as long as hypanthium.   40 C. pseudocerasus
+ Petals apically 2-lobed; sepalsy nearly 2 × as long as hypanthium.   41 C. dielsiana
33 (30) Inflorescences subcorymbose-racemose to long racemose; petals apically subundulate to emarginate; hypanthium tubular-campanulate.   42 C. yunnanensis
+ Inflorescences umbellate or umbellate-racemose; petals apically emarginate or lobed; hypanthium tubular.   (34)
34 (33) Sepals reflexed; hypanthium densely hirtellous outside.   43 C. schneideriana
+ Sepals erect or spreading; hypanthium pilose outside.   (35)
35 (34) Secondary veins 10–14 on each side of midvein, straight and nearly parallel; inflorescences umbelate, 2- or 3-flowered; pedicel 1–2 cm; sepals nearly as long as hypanthium, apically laxly serrate.   27 C. subhirtella
+ Secondary veins 7–10 on each side of midvein, slightly curved; inflorerscences umbellate- racemose, 3- or 4-flowered; pedicel 2–2.5 cm; sepals slightly shorter than hypanthium, apically serrate.   28 C. yedoensis
36 (29) Petals apically rounded (sometimes emarginate in C. pusilliflora).   (37)
+ Petals apically 2-lobed or emarginate.   (40)
37 (36) Style glabrous.   23 C. mahaleb
+ Style hairy.   (38)
38 (37) Flowers solitary or umbellate; hypanthium densely hairy outside.   26 C. trichantha
+ Flowers in a corybose-racemose inflorescence; hypanthium glabrous outside.   (39)
39 (38) Inflorescence distinctly pedunculate; pedicel 4–8 cm; hypanthium tubular-campanulate.   32 C. henryi
+ Inflorescence short pedunculate; pedicel 1–1.5 cm; hypanthium campanulate.   33 C. pusilliflora
40 (36) Sepals reflex.   34 C. cyclamina
+ Sepals straight or spreading.   (41)
41 (40) Leaf blade margin serrulate or biserrate with acuminat to aristate teeth.   35 C. serrulata
+ Leaf blade sharply serrate.   (42)
42 (41) Flowers opening at same time as leaves; drupe purplish black; endocarp apex obtuse.   38 C. cerrasoides
+ Flowers opening before leaves; drupe red; endocarp apex acute.   (43)
43 (42) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous; involucre bracts 6–8 × 4–5 mm; hypanthium ca. 4 mm; petals apically 2-lobed.   36 C. conradinae
+ Leaf blade abaxially with tufts of hairs in vein axils; involucre bracts ca. 5 × 3 mm; hypanthium ca. 6 mm; petals apically emarginate or rarely entire.   37 C. campanulata

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